• 1
    Romani F, Belli LS, Rondinara GF et al.. The role of transplantation in small hepatocellular carcinoma complicating cirrhosis of the liver. J Am Coll Surg 1994; 178: 379384.
  • 2
    Mazzaferro V, Regalia E, Doci R et al.. Liver transplantation for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis. N Engl J Med 1996; 334: 693699.
  • 3
    Figueras J, Jaurrieta E, Valls C et al.. Survival after liver transplantation in cirrhotic patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma: a comparative study. Hepatology 1997; 25: 14851489.
  • 4
    Llovet JM, Bruix J, Fuster J et al.. Liver transplantation for small hepatocellular carcinoma: the tumor-node-metastasis classification does not have prognostic power. Hepatology 1998; 27: 15721577.
  • 5
    Tamura S, Kato T, Berho M et al.. Impact of histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma on the outcome of liver transplantation. Arch Surg 2001; 136: 2530.
  • 6
    Hemming AW, Cattral MS, Reed AI, Van der Werf WJ, Greig PD, Howard RJ. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma. Ann Surg 2001; 233: 652659.
  • 7
    United Network for Organ Sharing. Available at, accessed on August 8, 2003.
  • 8
    American Liver Tumor Study Group. A randomized prospective multi-institutional trial of orthotopic liver transplantation or partial hepatic resection with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Investigators booklet and Protocol, 1998.
  • 9
    El-Serag HB, Mason AC. Rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 745750.
  • 10
    Llovet JM, Fuster J, Bruix J. Intention-to-treat analysis of surgical treatment for early hepatocellular carcinoma: resection versus transplantation. Hepatology 1999; 30: 14341440.
  • 11
    Yao FY, Bass NM, Nikolai B et al.. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: analysis of survival according to the intention-to-treat principle and dropout from the waiting list. Liver Transpl 2002; 8: 873883.
  • 12
    Yao FY, Bass NM, Nikolai B et al.. A follow-up analysis of the pattern and predictors of dropout from the waiting list for liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: Implications for the current organ allocation policy. Liver Transpl 2003; 9: 684692.
  • 13
    Everhart JE, Lombardero M, Detre KM et al.. Increased waiting time for liver transplantation results in higher mortality. Transplantation 1997; 64: 13001306.
  • 14
    Kalbfleisch JD, Prentice RL. The Statistical Analysis of Failure Time Data, 1st edn. New York : John Wiley and Sons, 1980.
  • 15
    Lawless JF. Statistical Models and Methods for Lifetime Data, 1st edn. New York : John Wiley and Sons, 1982.
  • 16
    Gaynor J, Chapman D, Little C et al.. A cause-specific hazard rate analysis of prognostic factors among 199 adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: The Memorial Hospital Experience since 1969. J Clin Oncol 1988; 6: 10141030.
  • 17
    Gaynor JJ, Feuer EJ, Tan CC et al.. On the use of cause-specific failure and conditional failure probabilities: Examples from clinical oncology data. J Am Stat Assoc 1993; 88: 400409.
  • 18
    Pugh RNH, Murray-Lyon IM, Dawson JL, Pietroni MC, William R. Transection of the oesophagus for bleeding oesophageal varices. Br J Surg 1973; 60: 646649.
  • 19
    Seki T, Wakabayashi M, Nakagawa T et al.. Ultrasonically guided percutaneous microwave coagulation therapy for small hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 1994; 74: 817825.
  • 20
    Edmondson HA, Steiner PE. Primary carcinoma of the liver. a study of 100 cases among 48,900 necropsies. Cancer 1954; 7: 462503.
  • 21
    Kamath PS, Wiesner RH, McDiarmid et al.. MELD, PELD Application of survival models to liver allocation. Liver Transpl 2001; 7: 567580.
  • 22
    Gooley TA, Leisenring W, Crowley J, Storer BE. Estimation of failure probabilities in the presence of competing risks: New representations of old estimators. Stat Med 1999; 18: 695706.
  • 23
    Marsh JW, Dvorchik I, Bonham CA, Iwatsuki S. Is the pathologic TNM staging system for patients with hepatoma predictive of outcome? Cancer 2000; 88: 538543.
  • 24
    Jonas S, Bechstein WO, Steinmuller T et al.. Vascular invasion and histopathologic grading determine outcome after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis. Hepatology 2001; 33: 10801086.
  • 25
    Yao FY, Ferrell L, Bass NM et al.. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma: expansion of the tumor size limits does not adversely impact survival. Hepatology 2001; 33: 13941403.
  • 26
    Molmenti EP, Klintmalm GB. Liver transplantation in association with hepatocellular carcinoma: an update of the international tumor registry. Liver Transpl 2002; 8: 736748.
  • 27
    Collier J, Sherman M. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 1998; 27: 273278.
  • 28
    Taketa K. Alpha-fetoprotein: reevaluation in hepatology. Hepatology 1990; 12: 14201432.
  • 29
    Nomura F, Ohnishi K, Tanabe Y. Clinical features and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma with reference to serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. Cancer 1989; 64: 17001707.
  • 30
    Fujioka M, Nakashima Y, Nakashima O, Kojiro M. Immunohistologic study on the expressions of α-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II in surgically resected small hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology 2001; 34: 11281134.
  • 31
    Stuart KE, Anand AJ, Jenkins RL. Hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States. prognostic features, treatment outcome, and survival. Cancer 1996; 77: 22172222.
  • 32
    Roayaie S, Frischer JS, Emre SH et al.. Long-term results with multimodal adjuvant therapy and liver transplantation for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma larger than 5 centimeters. Ann Surg 2002; 235: 533539.
  • 33
    Yamashiki N, Kato T, Bejarano P et al.. Histopathological changes after microwave coagulation therapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: review of 15 explanted livers. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 20522059.
    Direct Link:
  • 34
    Cheng SJ, Pratt DS, Freeman RB, Jr Kaplan MM, Wong JB. Living-donor versus cadaveric liver transplantation for non-resectable small hepatocellular carcinoma and compensated cirrhosis: a decision analysis. Transplantation 2001; 72: 861868.
  • 35
    Sarasin FP, Majno PE, Llovet JM, Bruix J, Mentha G, Hadengue A. Living donor liver transplantation for early hepatocellular carcinoma: a life-expectancy and cost-effectiveness perspective. Hepatology 2001; 33: 10731079.