• 1
    Kiuchi M, Adachi K, Kohara T et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 2,2-disubstituted 2-aminoethanols: analogues of FTY720. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 1998; 8: 1016.
  • 2
    Brinkmann V, Pinschewer DD, Feng L, Chen S. FTY720: Altered lymphocyte traffic results in allograft protection. Transplantation 2001; 72: 764769.
  • 3
    Boehler T, Schuetz M, Budde K, Neumayer H, Waiser J. FTY720 alters the composition of T-lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood compartment of renal transplant patients. Transplant Proc 2002; 34: 22422243.
  • 4
    Budde K, Schmouder RL, Brunkhorst R et al. First human trial of FTY720, a novel immunomodulator, in stable renal transplant patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 10731083.
  • 5
    Pinschewer DD, Ochsenbein AF, Odermatt B, Brinkmann V, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel RM. FTY720 immunosuppression impairs effector T-cell peripheral homing without affecting induction, expansion, and memory. J Immunol 2000; 164: 57615770.
  • 6
    Mandala S, Hajdu R, Bergstrom J et al. Alteration of lymphocyte trafficking by sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor agonists. Science 2002; 296: 346349.
  • 7
    Brinkmann V, Davis MD, Heise CE et al. The immune modulator FTY720 targets sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors. J Biol Chem 2002; 277: 2145321457.
  • 8
    Yanagawa Y, Sugahara K, Kataoka H, Kawaguchi T, Masubuchi Y, Chiba K. FTY720, a novel immunosuppressant, induces sequestration of circulating mature lymphocytes by acceleration of lymphocyte homing in rats. II. FTY720 prolongs skin allograft survival by decreasing T cell infiltration into grafts but not cytokine production in vivo. J Immunol 1998; 160: 54935499.
  • 9
    Hwang MW, Matsumori A, Furukawa Y et al. FTY720, a new immunosuppressant, promotes long-term graft survival and inhibits the progression of graft coronary artery disease in a murine model of cardiac transplantation. Circulation 1999; 100: 13221329.
  • 10
    Koshiba T, Van Damme B, Rutgeerts O, Waer M, Pirenne J. FTY720, an immunosuppressant that alters lymphocyte trafficking, abrogates chronic rejection in combination with cyclosporine A. Transplantation 2003; 75: 945952.
  • 11
    Schuurman HJ, Menninger K, Audet M et al. Oral efficacy of the new immunomodulator FTY720 in cynomolgus monkey kidney allotransplantation, given alone or in combination with cyclosporine or RAD. Transplantation 2002; 74: 951960.
  • 12
    Chueh SC, Tian L, Wang M, Wang ME, Stepkowski SM, Kahan BD. Induction of tolerance toward rat cardiac allografts by treatment with allochimeric class I MHC antigen and FTY720. Transplantation 1997; 64: 14071414.
  • 13
    Bai Y, Liu J, Wang Y et al. L-selectin-dependent lymphoid occupancy is required to induce alloantigen-specific tolerance. J Immunol 2002; 168: 15791589.
  • 14
    Lehmann M, Sternkopf F, Metz F et al. Induction of long-term survival of rat skin allografts by a novel, highly efficient anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody. Transplantation 1992; 54: 959962.
  • 15
    Volk HD, Siegling A, Platzer C, Brock J, Emmrich F, Lehmann M. Tolerance induction by anti-CD4 mab treatment in a rat kidney transplantation model. Transplant Proc 1994; 26: 31553156.
  • 16
    Lee S. An improved technique of renal transplantation in the rat. Surgery 1967; 61: 771773.
  • 17
    Schröder G, Risch K, Nizze H et al. Immune response after adenoviral gene transfer in syngeneic heart transplants: effects of anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody therapy. Transplantation 2000; 70: 191198.
  • 18
    Sawitzki B, Kieselbach B, Fisser M et al. Interferon-gamma regulation in anti-CD4 antibody induced T cell unresponsiveness. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 695703.
  • 19
    Pascher A, Reutzel-Selke A, Jurisch A et al. Alterations of the immune response with increasing recipient age are associated with reduced long-term organ graft function of rat kidney allografts. Transplantation 2003; 76: 15601568.
  • 20
    Chueh SC, Tsai CC, Chiu B, Li YC, Lai MK. Rescuing acute rejection of rat cardiac allografts with FTY720. Transplant Proc 2000; 32: 16291630.
  • 21
    Kirk AD, Burkly LC, Batty DS et al. Treatment with humanized monoclonal antibody against CD154 prevents acute renal allograft rejection in nonhuman primates. Nat Med 1999; 5: 686693.
  • 22
    Li Y, Li XC, Zheng XX, Wells AD, Turka LA, Strom TB. Blocking both signal 1 and signal 2 of T-cell activation prevents apoptosis of alloreactive T cells and induction of peripheral allograft tolerance. Nat Med 1999; 5: 12981302.
  • 23
    Sho M, Sandner SE, Najafian N et al. New insights into the interactions between T-cell costimulatory blockade and conventional immunosuppressive drugs. Ann Surg 2002; 236: 667675.
  • 24
    Anselmo DM, Amersi FF, Shen XD et al. FTY720 pretreatment reduces warm hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury through inhibition of T-lymphocyte infiltration. Am J Transplant 2002; 2: 843849.
  • 25
    Ke B, Ritter T, Kato H et al. Regulatory cells potentiate the efficacy of IL-4 gene transfer by up-regulating Th2-dependent expression of protective molecules in the infectious tolerance pathway in transplant recipients. J Immunol 2001; 164: 57395745.
  • 26
    Lehmann M, Graser E, Risch K et al. Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody-induced allograft tolerance in rats despite persistence of donor-reactive T cells. Transplantation 1997; 64: 11811187.
  • 27
    Waldmann H, Cobbold S. How do monoclonal antibodies induce tolerance? A role for infectious tolerance Annu Rev Immunol 1998; 16: 619644.
  • 28
    Onodera K, Lehmann M, Akalin E, Volk HD, Sayegh MH, Kupiec-Weglinski JW. Induction of ‘infectious’ tolerance to MHC-incompatible cardiac allografts in CD4 monoclonal antibody-treated sensitized rat recipients. J Immunol 1996; 157: 19441950.
  • 29
    Sawitzki B, Lehmann M, Vogt K et al. Bag-1 up-regulation in anti-CD4 mAb treated allo-activated T cells confers resistance to apoptosis. Eur J Immunol 2002; 32: 800809.
  • 30
    Sawitzki B, Lehmann M, Ritter T, Graser E, Kupiec-Weglinski JW, Volk HD. Regulatory tolerance-mediating T cells in transplantation tolerance. Transplant Proc 2001; 33: 20922093.
  • 31
    Onodera K, Volk HD, Ritter T, Kupiec-Weglinski JW. Thymus requirement and antigen dependency in the ‘infectious’ tolerance pathway in transplant recipients. J Immunol 1998; 160: 57655772.
  • 32
    Budde K, Schmouder RL, Nashan B et al. Pharmacodynamics of single doses of the novel immunosuppressant FTY720 in stable renal transplant patients. Am J Transplant 2003; 3: 846854.
  • 33
    Fontenot JD, Gavin MA, Rudenski AY. Foxp3 programs the development and function of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Nat Immunol 2003; 4: 330336.
  • 34
    Hori S, Nomura T, Sakaguchi S. Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor Foxp3. Science 2003; 299: 10571061.
  • 35
    Koshiba T, Van Damme B, Ji P et al. The effect of FTY720 on engraftment in a model of spontaneous allograft acceptance. Transpl Int 2003; 16: 383390.