• 1
    Citterio F. Steroid side effects and their impact on transplantation outcome. Transplantation 2001; 72: S7580.
  • 2
    Veenstra DL, Best JH, Hornberger J, Sullivan SD, Hricik DE. Incidence and long-term cost of steroid-related side effects after renal transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 33: 829839.
  • 3
    Schweizer RT, Rovelli M, Palmeri D, Vossler E, Hull D, Bartus S. Noncompliance in organ transplant recipients. Transplantation 1990; 49: 374377.
  • 4
    Nevins TE, Kruse L, Skeans MA, Thomas W. The natural history of azathioprine compliance after renal transplantation. Kidney Int 2001; 60: 15651570.
  • 5
    Montagnino G, Tarantino A, Maccario M, Elli A, Cesana B, Ponticelli C. Long-term results with cyclosporine monotherapy in renal transplant patients: a multivariate analysis of risk factors. Am J Kidney Dis 2000; 35: 11351134.
  • 6
    Sinclair NR. Low-dose steroid therapy in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients with well-functioning grafts. The Canadian Multicentre Transplant Study Group. CMAJ 1992; 147: 645657.
  • 7
    Hricik DE, O'Toole MA, Schulak JA, Herson J. Steroid-free immunosuppression in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients: a meta-analysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 1993; 4: 13001305.
  • 8
    Kasiske BL, Chakkera HA, Louis TA, Ma JZ. A meta-analysis of immunosuppression withdrawal trials in renal transplantation. Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11: 19101917.
  • 9
    Ahsan N, Hricik D, Matas A et al. Prednisone withdrawal in kidney transplant recipients on cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil – a prospective randomized study. Steroid Withdrawal Study Group. Transplantation 1999; 68: 18651874.
  • 10
    Vanrenterghem Y, Lebranchu Y, Hene R, Oppenheimer F, Ekberg H. Double-blind comparison of two corticosteroid regimens plus mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporine for prevention of acute renal allograft rejection. Transplantation 2000; 70: 13521359.
  • 11
    Matas AJ. Acute rejection is a major risk factor for chronic rejection. Transplant Proc 1998; 30: 17661768.
  • 12
    Lo Cascio V, Bonucci E, Imbimbo B et al. Bone loss after glucocorticoid therapy. Calcif Tissue Int 1984; 36: 435438.
  • 13
    Laan RF, Van Riel PL, Van De Putte LB, Van Erning LJ, Van't Hof MA, Lemmens JA. Low-dose prednisone induces rapid reversible axial bone loss in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. A randomized, controlled study. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119: 963968.
  • 14
    Van Staa TP, Leufkens HG, Abenhaim L, Zhang B, Cooper C. Oral corticosteroids and fracture risk: relationship to daily and cumulative doses. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000; 39: 13831389.
  • 15
    Gluck OS, Murphy WA, Hahn TJ, Hahn B. Bone loss in adults receiving alternate day glucocorticoid therapy. A comparison with daily therapy. Arthritis Rheum 1981; 24: 892898.
  • 16
    Ruegsegger P, Medici TC, Anliker M. Corticosteroid-induced bone loss. A longitudinal study of alternate day therapy in patients with bronchial asthma using quantitative computed tomography. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1983; 25: 615620.
  • 17
    Birkeland SA. Steroid-free immunosuppression in renal transplantation: a long-term follow-up of 100 consecutive patients. Transplantation 2001; 71: 10891090.
  • 18
    Matas AJ, Ramcharan T, Paraskevas S et al. Rapid discontinuation of steroids in living donor kidney transplantation: a pilot study. Am J Transplant 2001; 1: 278283.
  • 19
    Kandaswamy R, Humar A, Khwaja K et al.. A prospective, randomized study of cyclosporine/CellCept vs. tacrolimus/sirolimus with rapid discontinuation of prednisone (Abstract). Am J Transplant 2003; 3: 198.
  • 20
    Kaufman DB, Leventhal JR, Fryer JP et al. Kidney transplantation without prednisone (Abstract). Transplantation 2000; 69: S133.
  • 21
    Vincenti F, Monaco A, Grinyo J, Kinkhabwala M, Roza A. Multicenter randomized prospective trial of steroid withdrawal in renal transplant recipients receiving basiliximab, cyclosporine microemulsion and mycophenolate mofetil. Am J Transplant 2003; 3: 306311.
  • 22
    Leventhal JR, Kaufman DB, Lorenzo G et al. Four-year single center experience with prednisone-free immunosuppression in 434 kidney transplant recipients (Abstract). Am J Transplant 2003; 3: 439.
  • 23
    Cole E, Landsberg D, Russell D et al. A pilot study of steroid-free immunosuppression in the prevention of acute rejection in renal allograft recipients. Transplantation 2001; 72: 84550.
  • 24
    Sarwal MM, Yorgin PD, Alexander S et al. Promising early outcomes with a novel, complete steroid avoidance immunosuppression protocol in pediatric renal transplantation. Transplantation 2001; 72: 1321.
  • 25
    Boots JM, Christiaans MH, Van Duijnhoven EM, Van Suylen RJ, Van Hooff JP. Early steroid withdrawal in renal transplantation with tacrolimus dual therapy: a pilot study. Transplantation 2002; 74: 17039.
  • 26
    Calne R, Moffatt SD, Friend PJ, Jamieson NV, Bradley JA, Hale G. Campath IH allows low-dose cyclosporine monotherapy in 31 cadaveric renal allograft recipients. Transplantation 1999; 68: 16136.
  • 27
    Cecka MJ. The UNOS Scientific Renal Transplant Registry. In: CeckaJM, TerasakiPI (eds): Clinical Transplants. Los Angeles , CA : UCLA Tissue Typing Laboratory , 2000: 120.
  • 28
    Almawi WY, Melemedjian OK, Rieder MJ. An alternate mechanism of glucocorticoid anti-proliferative effect: promotion of a Th2 cytokine-secreting profile. Clin Transplant 1999; 13: 36574.
  • 29
    Cattaneo D, Perico N, Gaspari F, Gotti E, Remuzzi G. Glucocorticoids interfere with mycophenolate mofetil bioavailability in kidney transplantation. Kidney Int 2002; 62: 10601067.
  • 30
    Van Duijnhoven EM, Boots JM, Christiaans MH, Stolk LM, Undre NA, Van Hooff JP. Increase in tacrolimus trough levels after steroid withdrawal. Transpl Int 2003; 16: 721725.
  • 31
    Hjelmesaeth J, Hartmann A, Kofstad J et al. Glucose intolerance after renal transplantation depends upon prednisolone dose and recipient age. Transplantation 1997; 64: 97983.
  • 32
    Kasiske BL, Snyder JJ, Gilbertson D, Matas AJ. Diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation in the United States. Am J Transplant 2003; 3: 178185.
  • 33
    Pirsch JD, Miller J, Deierhoi MH, Vincenti F, Filo RS. A comparison of tacrolimus (FK506) and cyclosporine for immunosuppression after cadaveric renal transplantation. FK506 Kidney Transplant Study Group. Transplantation 1997; 63: 977983.
  • 34
    Vincenti F, Laskow DA, Neylan JF, Mendez R, Matas AJ. One-year follow-up of an open-label trial of FK506 for primary kidney transplantation. A report of the U.S. Multicenter FK506 Kidney Transplant Group. Transplantation 1996; 61: 15761581.
  • 35
    Cantarovich D, Giral-Classe M, Hourmant M et al. Low incidence of kidney rejection after simultaneous kidney-pancreas transplantation after antithymocyte globulin induction and in the absence of corticosteroids: results of a prospective pilot study in 28 consecutive cases. Transplantation 2000; 69: 15051508.
  • 36
    Kaufman DB, Leventhal JR, Koffron AJ et al. A prospective study of rapid corticosteroid elimination in simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: comparison of two maintenance immunosuppression protocols: tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil versus tacrolimus/sirolimus. Transplantation 2002; 73: 169177.
  • 37
    Brennan DC, Flavin K, Lowel JA et al. A randomized double-blind comparison of Thymoglobulin versus Atgam for induction immunosuppressive therapy in adult renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 1999; 67: 10111018.
  • 38
    Adu D, Cockwell P, Ives NJ, Shaw J, Wheatley K. Interleukin-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies in renal transplantation: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2003; 326: 789.
  • 39
    Margreiter R for the European Tacrolimus vs. Ciclosporin Microemulsion Renal Transplantation Study Group. Efficacy and safety of tacrolimus compared with ciclosporin microemulsion in renal transplantation: a randomized multicentre study. Lancet 2002; 359: 741746.
  • 40
    MacDonald AS, for the Rapamune Global Study Group. A worldwide phase III randomized, controlled safety and efficacy study of a sirolimus/cyclosporine regimen for prevention of acute rejection in recipients of primary mismatched renal allografts. Transplantation 2000; 71: 271280.
  • 41
    Kahan BD for the Rapamune US Study Group. Efficacy of sirolimus compared with azathioprine for reduction of acute renal allograft rejection: a randomised multicentre study. The Rapamune US Study Group. Lancet 2000; 356: 194202.
  • 42
    Halloran P, Mathew T, Tomlanovich S, Groth C, Hooftman L, Barker C. Mycophenolate mofetil in renal allograft recipients: a pooled efficacy analysis of three randomized, double-blind, clinical studies in prevention of rejection. The International Mycophenolate Mofetil Renal Transplant Study Groups. Transplantation 1997; 63: 3947.
  • 43
    Ahsan N, Johnson C, Gonwa T et al. Randomized trial of tacrolimus plus mycophenolate mofetil or azathioprine versus cyclosporine oral solution (modified) plus mycophenolate mofetil after cadaveric kidney transplantation: Results at 2 years. Transplantation 2001; 72: 245250.