• 1
    Baigent C, Burbury K, Wheeler D. Premature cardiovascular disease in chronic renal failure. Lancet 2000; 356: 147152.
  • 2
    Lindholm A, Albrechtsen D, Frödin L, Tufveson G, Persson NH, Lundgren G. Ischemic heart disease—a major cause of death and graft loss after renal transplantation in Scandinavia. Transplantation 1995; 60: 451457.
  • 3
    Kasiske BL, Chakkera HA, Roel J. Explained and unexplained ischemic heart disease risk after renal transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11: 17351743.
  • 4
    Jardine AG. Assessing cardiovascular risk profile of immunosuppressive agents. Transplantation 2001; 72: S81S88.
  • 5
    Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet 1994; 344: 1383.
  • 6
    Shepherd J, Cobbe SM, Ford I et al.. for the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group. Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolemia. N Engl J Med 1995; 333: 13011307.
  • 7
    Sacks FM, Pfeffer MA, Moye LA et al.. for the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events Trial Investigators. The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 1001.
  • 8
    Downs JR, Clearfield M, Weis S et al.. Primary prevention of acute coronary events with lovastatin in men and women with average cholesterol levels: results of AFCAPS/TexCAPS. Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study. JAMA 1998; 279: 16151622.
  • 9
    The Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) Study Group. Prevention of cardiovascular events and death with pravastatin in patients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of initial cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 13491357.
  • 10
    Serruys PW, De Feyter P, Macaya C et al.. for the Lescol Intervention Prevention Study (LIPS) Investigators. Fluvastatin for prevention of cardiac events following successful first percutaneous coronary intervention. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002; 287: 32153222.
  • 11
    MRC/BHF. Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002; 360: 722.
  • 12
    Shepherd J, Blauw GJ, Murphy MB et al. Pravastatin in elderly individuals at risk of vascular disease (PROSPER): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002; 360: 16231630.
  • 13
    Sever PS, Dahlof B, Poulter NR et al. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361: 11491158.
  • 14
    Holdaas H, Fellström B, Holme I et al.. on behalf of the ALERT Study Group. Effects of fluvastatin on cardiac events in renal transplant patients: ALERT (Assessment of Lescol in Renal Transplantation) study design and baseline data. J Cardiovasc Risk 2001; 8: 6371.
  • 15
    Holdaas H, Fellström B, Jardine AG et al. Effect of fluvastatin on cardiac outcomes in renal transplant recipients: a multicentre, randomised, placebo controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 14: 20242031.
  • 16
    Lauer MS, Topol EJ. Clinical trials – multiple treatments, multiple end-points, and multiple lessons. J Am Med Assoc 2003; 289: 25752577.
  • 17
    ALLHAT. Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in moderately hypercholesterolaemic, hypertensive patients randomised to pravastatin vs., usual care. The antihypertensive and lipid lowering to prevent heart attack trial (ALLHAT-LLT). J Am Med Assoc 2002; 288: 29983007.
  • 18
    Ballantyne CM, Corsini A, Davidson MH et al. Risk for myopathy with statin therapy in high-risk patients. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 553564.
  • 19
    Jardine AG, Holdaas H. Fluvastatin in combination with cyclosporin in renal transplant recipients: a review of clinical and safety experience. J Clin Pharm Ther 1999; 24: 397408.
  • 20
    Woo YM, McLean D, Kavanagh D et al. The influence of pre-operative electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiovascular risk factors on patient and graft survival following renal transplantation. J Nephrol 2002; 15: 380386.
  • 21
    Roodnat JI, Mulder PG, Zietse R et al. Cholesterol as an independent predictor of outcome after renal transplantation. Transplantation 2000; 69: 17041710.
  • 22
    Ojo AO, Hanson JA, Wolfe RA, Leichtman AB, Agodoa LY, Port FK. Long-term survival in renal transplant recipients with graft function. Kidney Int 2000; 57: 307313.
  • 23
    Isles CG, Hole DJ, Gillis CR, Hawthorne VM, Lever AF. Plasma cholesterol, coronary heart disease and cancer in the Renfrew and Paisley survey. Br Med J 1989; 298: 920924.
  • 24
    Leavey SF, Strawderman RL, Jones CA, Port FK, Held PJ. Simple nutritional indicators as independent predictors of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 31: 9971006.
  • 25
    Port FK, Hulbert-Shearon TE, Wolfe RA et al. Predialysis blood pressure and mortality risk in a national sample of maintenance hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 33: 507517.
  • 26
    London GM, Guerin AP, Marchais SJ, Metivier F, Pannier B, Adda H. Arterial media calcification in end-stage renal disease: impact on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 17311740.
  • 27
    London GM, Guerin A. Influence of arterial pulse and reflective waves on systolic blood pressure and cardiac function. J Hypertension 1999; 17: S3S6.
  • 28
    Mann JF, Gerstein HC, Dulau-Florea I, Lonn E. Cardiovascular risk in patients with mild renal insufficiency. Kid Int 2003; 84: S192S196.
  • 29
    Kyllonen L, Salmela K, Pukkala E. Cancer incidence in a kidney-transplanted population. Transpl Int 2000; 13: S394S397.
  • 30
    Patel R, Paya CV. Infections in solid-organ transplant recipients. Clin Microbiol Rev 1997; 10: 86124.
  • 31
    Cosio FG, Pesavento TE, Pelletier RP et al.. Patient survival after renal transplantation III. the effects of statins. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 40: 638643.