• 1
    Fishman JA, Rubin RH. Infection in organ-transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 17411751.
  • 2
    Duncan SR, Paradis IL, Yousem SA et al.. Sequelae of cytomegalovirus pulmonary infections in lung allograft recipients. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 146: 14191425.
  • 3
    Snydman DR. Infection in solid organ transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis 1999; 1: 2128.
  • 4
    Singh N, Arnow PM, Bonham A et al.. Invasive aspergillosis in liver transplant recipients in the 1990s. Transplantation 1997; 64: 716720.
  • 5
    McCarthy JM, Karim MA, Krueger H, Keown PA. The cost impact of cytomegalovirus disease in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 1993; 55: 12771282.
  • 6
    Falagas ME, Arbo M, Ruthhazer R et al.. Cytomegalovirus disease is associated with increased cost and hospital length of stay among orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 1997; 63: 15951601.
  • 7
    Kim WR, Badley AD, Weisner RH et al.. The economic impact of cytomegalovirus infection after liver transplantation. Transplantation 2000; 69: 357361.
  • 8
    Wreghitt T. Cytomegalovirus infections in heart and heart-lung transplant recipients. J Antimicrob Chemother 1989; 23: 4960.
  • 9
    Balthesen M, Messerle M, Reddehase MJ. Lungs are a major organ site of cytomegalovirus latency and recurrence. J Virol 1993; 67: 53605366.
  • 10
    Mendez JC, Dockrell DH, Espy MJ et al.. Human betaherpesvirus interactions in solid organ transplant recipients. J Infect Dis 2001; 183: 179184.
  • 11
    Jamil B, Nicholls KM, Becker GJ, Walker RG. Influence of anti-rejection therapy on the timing of cytomegalovirus disease and other infections in renal transplant recipients. Clin Transplant 2000; 14: 1418.
  • 12
    Tolkhoff-Rubin NE, Fishman JA, Rubin RH. The bidirectional relationship between cytomegalovirus and allograft injury. Transplant Proc 2001; 33: 17731775.
  • 13
    Beck S, Barrell BG. Human cytomegalovirus encodes a glycoprotein homologous to MHC class-I antigens. Nature 1988; 331: 269272.
  • 14
    Winston DJ, Antin JH, Wolff SN et al.. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind comparison of different doses of intravenous immunoglobulin for prevention of graft-versus-host disease and infection after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 2001; 28: 187196.
  • 15
    Duncan SR, Grgurich WF, Iacono AT et al.. A comparison of ganciclovir and acyclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus after lung transplantation. Am Rev Respir Dis 1994; 150: 146152.
  • 16
    Schulman LL, Weinberg AD, McGregor CC, Suciu-Foca NM, Itescu S. Influence of donor and recipient HLA locus mismatching on development of obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 163: 437442.
  • 17
    Ettinger NA, Bailey TC, Trulock EP et al.. Cytomegalovirus infection and pneumonitis. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 147: 10171023.
  • 18
    Sharples LD, Tamm M, McNeil K, Higenbottam TW, Stewart S, Wallwork J. Development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in recipients of heart-lung transplantation – early risk factors. Transplantation 1996; 61: 560566.
  • 19
    Valantine HA. Prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus disease in thoracic organ transplant patients: evidence for a beneficial effect of hyperimmune globulin. Transplant Proc 1995; 27: 4957.
  • 20
    Bowden RA, Slichter SJ, Sayers M et al.. A comparison of filtered leukocyte-reduced and cytomegalovirus (CMV) seronegative blood products for the prevention of transfusion-associated CMV infection after marrow transplant. Blood 1995; 86: 35983603.
  • 21
    Baldanti F, Revello MG, Percivalle E, Gerna G. Use of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) antigenemia assay for diagnosis and monitoring of HCMV infections and detection of antiviral drug resistance in the immunocompromised. J Clin Virol 1998; 11: 5160.
  • 22
    Egan JJ, Barber L, Lomax J et al.. Detection of human cytomegalovirus antigenemia: a rapid diagnostic technique for predicting cytomegalovirus infection/pneumonitis in lung and heart transplant recipients. Thorax 1995; 50: 913.
  • 23
    Bewig B, Haacke TC, Tirocke A et al.. Detection of CMV pneumonitis after lung transplantation using PCR of DNA from bronchoalveolar lavage cells. Respiration 2000; 67: 166172.
  • 24
    Michaelides A, Liolios L, Glare EM et al.. Increased human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA load in peripheral blood leukocytes after lung transplantation correlates with HCMV pneumonia. Transplantation 2001; 72: 141147.
  • 25
    Guiver M, Fox AJ, Mutton K, Mogulkoc N, Egan J. Evaluation of CMV viral load using TaqMan CMV quantitative PCR and comparison with CMV antigenemia in heart and lung transplant recipients. Transplantation 2001; 71: 16091615.
  • 26
    Masaoka T, Hiraoka A, Ohta K et al.. Evaluation of the AMPLICOR CMV, COBAS AMPLICOR CMV monitor, and antigenemia assay for cytomegalovirus disease. Jpn J Infect Dis 2001; 54: 1216.
  • 27
    Mazzulli T. Multicenter comparison of the Digene hybrid capture CMVDNA assay, Version 2.0, the Pp65 antigenemia assay, and cell culture for detection of cytomegalovirus viremia. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37: 95863.
  • 28
    Bhorade SM, Sandesara C, Garrity ER et al.. Quantification of cytomegalovirus (CMV) viral load by the hybrid capture assay allows for early detection of CMV disease in lung transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant 2001; 20: 928934.
  • 29
    Humar A, Gregson D, Caliendo AM et al.. Clinical utility of quantitative cytomegalovirus viral load determination for predicting cytomegalovirus disease in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 1999; 68: 13051311.
  • 30
    Weinberg A, Hodges TN, Li S, Cai G, Zamora MR. Comparison of PCR, antigenemia assay and rapid blood culture for detection and prevention of cytomegalovirus disease after lung transplantation. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 768772.
  • 31
    Soghikian MV, Valentine VG, Berry GJ, Patel HR, Robbins RC, Theodore J. Impact of ganciclovir prophylaxis on heart-lung and lung transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant 1996; 15: 881887.
  • 32
    Duncan SR, Paradis IL, Dauber JH, Yousem SA, Hardesty RL, Griffith BP. Ganciclovir prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus infections in pulmonary allograft recipients. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 146: 12131215.
  • 33
    Kelly JL, Albert RK, Wood DE, Raghu G. Efficacy of a 6-week prophylactic ganciclovir regimen and the role of serial cytomegalovirus antibody testing in lung transplant recipients. Transplantation 1995; 59: 11441147.
  • 34
    Hertz MI, Jordan C, Savik SK et al.. Randomized trial of daily versus three-times-weekly prophylactic ganciclovir after lung and heart-lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 1998; 17: 913920.
  • 35
    Limaye AP, Raghu G, Koelle DM, Ferrenberg J, Huang ML, Boeckh M. High incidence of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infection among lung transplant recipients receiving preemptive therapy. J Infect Dis 2002; 185: 2027.
  • 36
    Paya CV. A randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, active comparator controlled multicenter study of the efficacy and safety of valganciclovir vs. oral ganciclovir for prevention of CMV in 372 high-risk (D+/R-) heart, liver and kidney recipients. [Abstract LB-4]. In: Program and Abstracts of the 42nd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, September, 27-30, 2002, San Diego , California . Washington , D.C. : American Society for Microbiology Press, 2002.
  • 37
    Maurer JR, Snell G, DeHoyos A, Kesten S, Winton T. Outcomes of lung transplantation using three different cytomegalovirus prophylactic regimens. Transplant Proc 1993; 25: 14341435.
  • 38
    Gould FK, Freeman R, Taylor CE, Ashcroft T, Dark JH, Corris PA. Prophylaxis and management of cytomegalovirus pneumonitis after lung transplantation: a review of experience in one center. J Heart Lung Transplant 1993; 12: 695699.
  • 39
    Kruger RM, Paranjothi S, Storch GA, Lynch JP, Trulock EP. Impact of prophylaxis with cytogam alone on the incidence of CMV viremia in CMV-seropositive lung transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant 2003; 22: 754763.
  • 40
    Bailey TC, Trulock EP, Ettinger NA, Storch GA, Cooper JD, Powderly WG. Failure of prophylactic ganciclovir to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of lung transplants. J Infect Dis 1992; 165: 548552.
  • 41
    Zamora MR. Use of cytomegalovirus immune globulin and ganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in lung transplantation. Transplant Infect Dis 2001; 3: 4956.
  • 42
    Valantine HA, Luikart H, Doyle R et al.. Impact of cytomegalovirus hyoerimmune globulin on outcome after cardiothoracic transplantation: a comparative study of combined prophylaxis with CMV hyperimmune globulin plus ganciclovir versus ganciclovir alone. Transplantation 2001; 72: 16471652.
  • 43
    Poirier CD, Doyle RL, Theodore J, Robbins RC, Reitz BA, Valantine HA. Comparison between CMV Hyperimmune globulin and GCV for CMV prophylaxis in heart-lung and lung transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant 1998; 17: 96.
  • 44
    Weill D, Lock BJ, Wewers DL et al.. Combination prophylaxis with ganciclovir and cytomegalovirus (CMV) immune globulin after lung transplantation: effective CMV prevention following daclizumab induction. Am J Transplant 2003; 3: 492496.
  • 45
    Kelly J, Hurley D, Raghu G. Comparison of the efficacy and cost effectiveness of pre-emptive therapy as directed by CMV antigenemia and prophylaxis with ganciclovir in lung transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant 2000; 19: 355359.
  • 46
    Weill D, Zamora MR. Comparison of the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of pre-emptive therapy as directed by CMV antigenemia and prophylaxis with ganciclovir in lung transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant 2000; 19: 815816.
  • 47
    Rubin RH, Lynch P, Pasternack MS, Schoenfeld D, Medearis DN JrCombined antibody and ganciclovir treatment of murine cytomegalovirus-infected normals and immunocompromised BALB/c mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1989; 33: 19751979.
  • 48
    Goldfarb NS, Avery RK, Goormastic M et al.. Hypogammaglobulinemia in lung transplant recipients. Transplantation 2001; 71: 242246.
  • 49
    Yamani MH, Avery R, Mawhorter S et al.. Hypogammaglobulinemia following cardiac transplantation: a link between rejection and infection. J Heart Lung Transplant 2001; 20: 425430.
  • 50
    Rubin RH. Prevention and treatment of cytomegalovirus disease in heart transplant patients. J Heart Lung Transplant 2000; 19: 731735.
  • 51
    Turgeon N, Fishman JA, Doran M et al.. Prevention of recurrent cytomegalovirus disease in renal and liver transplant recipients: effect of oral ganciclovir. Transpl Infect Dis 2000; 2: 210.
  • 52
    Nankivell BJ, Malouf MA, Russ GR et al.. Maintenance therapy with oral ganciclovir after treatment of cytomegalovirus infection. Clin Transplant 1998; 12: 270273.
  • 53
    Erice A. Resistance of human cytomegalovirus to antiviral drugs. Clin Microbiol Rev 1999; 12: 286297.
  • 54
    Limaye AP, Corey L, Koelle DM, Davis CL, Boeckh M. Emergence of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus disease among recipients of solid-organ transplants. Lancet 2000; 356: 645649.
  • 55
    Kruger RM, Shannon WD, Arens MQ, Lynch JP, Storch GA, Trulock EP. The impact of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infection after lung transplantation. Transplantation 1999; 68: 12721279.
  • 56
    Alain S, Honderlick P, Grenet D et al.. Failure of ganciclovir treatment associated with selection of a ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus strain in a lung transplant recipient. Transplantation 1997; 62: 15331536.
  • 57
    Baldanti F, Simoncini L, Sarasini A et al.. Ganciclovir resistance as a result of oral ganciclovir in a heart transplant recipient with multiple human cytomegalovirus strains in blood. Transplantation 1998; 66: 324.
  • 58
    Lurain N, Ammons H, Kapell K, Yeldandi V, Garrity E, O'Keefe J. Molecular analysis of human cytomegalovirus strains from two lung transplant recipients with the same donor. Transplantation 1996; 62: 497.
  • 59
    Chou S, Marousek G, Guentzel S et al.. Evolution of mutations conferring multidrug resistance during prophylaxis and therapy of cytomegalovirus disease. J Infect Dis 1998; 176: 786789.
  • 60
    Mylonakis E, Kallas WM, Fishman JA. Combination antiviral therapy for ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34: 13371341.
  • 61
    Waldman WJ, Knight DA, Lurain NS et al.. Novel mechanism of inhibition of cytomegalovirus by the experimental immunosuppressive agent leflunomide. Transplantation 1999; 68: 814825.
  • 62
    Zamora MR, Nicolls M, Weill D et al.. Valganciclovir for the prevention of cytomegalovirus following lung transplantation: efficacy and optimal length of therapy. [Abstract 26]. In: Program and abstracts of the American Transplant Congress, May 30–June 4, 2003. Copenhagen , Denmark : Blackwell Munksgaard, 2003.