Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) is emerging as a method to treat patients with end-stage liver disease. The aims of this study were to identify donor and recipient characteristics of AALDLT, to determine variables that affect allograft survival, and to examine outcomes compared with those achieved following cadaveric transplantation. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to examine characteristics associated with the survival of AALDLT. Survival of AALDLT was then compared with cadaveric allografts in multivariable Cox models. Older donor age (>44 years), female-to-male donor to recipient relationship, recipient race, and the recipient medical condition before transplant were factors related to allograft failure among 731 AALDLT. Despite favorable donor and recipient characteristics, the rate of allograft failure, specifically the need for retransplantation, was increased among AALDLT (hazard ratio 1.66, 95% C.I. = 1.30–2.11) compared with cadaveric recipients. In conclusion, among AALDLT recipients, selecting younger donors, placing the allografts in recipients who have not had a prior transplant and are not in the ICU, may enhance allograft survival. Analysis of this early experience with AALDLT suggests that allograft failure may be higher than among recipients of a cadaveric liver.