• 1
    Wade JJ, Rolando N, Hayller K, Philpott-Howard J, Casewell MW, Williams R. Bacterial and fungal infections after liver transplantation: An analysis of 284 patients. Hepatology 1995; 21: 13261336.
  • 2
    Dominguez EA. Long-term infectious complications of liver transplantation. Semin Liver Dis 1995; 15: 133138.
  • 3
    Mazariegos GV, Molmenti EP, Kramer DJ. Early complications after orthotopic liver transplantation. Surg Clin North Am 1999; 79: 109129.
  • 4
    Hollenbaek ChS, Alfrey EJ, Souba WW. The effect of surgical site infections on outcomes and resource utilization after liver transplantation. Surgery 2001; 130: 388395.DOI: 10.1067/msy.2001.116666
  • 5
    Cainelli F, Vento S. Infections and solid organ transplant rejection: A cause-and-effect relationship Lancet Infect 2002; 2: 539549.
  • 6
    Wacha H, Hau T, Dittmer R, Ohmann C. Risk factors associated with intraabdominal infections: A prospective multicenter study. Langenbeck's Arch Surg 1999; 384: 2432.DOI: 10.1007/s004230050169
  • 7
    Bengmark S. Gut microenvironment and immune function. Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care 1999; 2: 8385.
  • 8
    Sheih YH, Chiang BL, Wang LH, Liao CK, Gill HS. Systemic immunity-enhancing effects in healthy subjects following dietary consumption of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. J Am Coll Nutr 2001; 20: 149156.
  • 9
    Rayes N, Seehofer D, Hansen S et al.Early enteral supply of lactobacillus and fiber versus selective bowel decontamination: A controlled trial in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 2002; 74: 123128.DOI: 10.1097/00007890-200207150-00021
  • 10
    Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Helwig U et al. Prophylaxis of pouchitis onset with probiotic therapy: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 2003; 124: 12021209.DOI: 10.1016/S0016-5085(03)00171-9
  • 11
    Kruszewska D, Lan J, Lorca G, Yanagisawa N, Marklinder I, Ljungh Å. Selection of lactic acid bacteria as probiotic strains by in vitro tests. Microb Ecol Health Dis, under publication.
  • 12
    Ljungh Å, Lan J-G, Yamagisawa N. Isolation, selection and characteristics of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp paracasei isolate F19. Microb Ecol Health Dis 2002;4 (suppl 3): 46.DOI: 10.1080/089106002760003279
  • 13
    Engelhard D. Bacterial infections. In: BowdenRA, LjungmanP, PayaCV eds. Transplant infections. Philadelphia : Lippincott-Raven, 1998: 153215.
  • 14
    Brook I, Frazier EH. Microbiology of subphrenic abscesses: A 14-year experience. Am Surg 1999; 65: 10491053.
  • 15
    Runkel NSF, Moody FG, Smith GS, Rodriguez LF, LaRocco MT, Miller TA. The role of the gut in the development of sepsis in acute pancreatitis. J Surg Res 1991; 51: 1823.DOI: 10.1016/0022-4804(91)90064-S
  • 16
    Wang X, Andersson R, Soltesz V, Guo W, Bengmark S. Water-soluble methylhydroxycellulose prevents bacterial translocation induced by major liver resection in the rat. Ann Surg 1993; 217: 155167.
  • 17
    Bengmark S. Immunonutrition: Role of biosurfactants, fiber and probiotic bacteria. Nutrition 1998; 14: 585.
  • 18
    Alverdy JC, Laughlin RS, Wu L. Influence of the critically ill state on host-pathogen interactions within the intestine: Gut-derived sepsis redefined. Crit Care Med 2003; 31: 598607.DOI: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000045576.55937.67
  • 19
    Lidbeck A, Overvik E, Rafter J et al. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus supplements on mutagen excretion in feces and urine in humans. Microb Ecol Health Dis 1992; 5: 5967.
  • 20
    Reid G, Jass J, Sebulsky MT, McCormick JK. Potential uses of probiotics in clinical practice. Clin Microbiol Rev 2003; 16: 658672.DOI: 10.1128/CMR.16.4.658-672.2003
  • 21
    Reid G, Bruce AW, Taylor M. Instillation of Lactobacillus and stimulation of indigenous organisms to prevent recurrence of urinary tract infections. Microecol Ther 1995; 23: 3245.
  • 22
    Gill HS, Rutherford KJ, Prasad J, Gopal PK. Enhancement of natural and acquired immunity by Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HNO19). Br J Nutr 2000; 83: 167176.
  • 23
    Liu Q, Duan ZP, Ha DK, Bengmark S, Kurtovic J, Riordan SM. Synbiotic modulation of gut flora: Effect on minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology 2004; 39: 14411449.DOI: 10.1002/hep.20194
  • 24
    Olah A, Belagyi T, Issekutz A, Gamal ME, Bengmark S. Randomized clinical trial of specific lactobacillus and fibre supplement to early enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis. Br J Surg 2002; 89: 11031107.DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2168.2002.02189.x