• 1
    Citterio F. Steroid side effects and their impact on transplantation outcome. Transplantation 2001; 72: S75S80.
  • 2
    Veenstra DL, Best JH, Hornberger J et al. Incidence and long-term cost of steroid-related side effects after renal transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 33: 829839.
  • 3
    Fryer JP, Granger DK, Leventhal JR et al. Steroid-related complications in the cyclosporine era. Clin Transplant 1994; 8: 224229.
  • 4
    Schweizer RT, Rovelli M, Palmeri D et al. Noncompliance in organ transplant recipients. Transplantation 1990; 49: 374377.
  • 5
    Nevins TE, Kruse L, Skeans MA et al. The natural history of azathioprine compliance after renal transplantation. Kidney Int 2001; 60: 15651570.DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2001.00961.x
  • 6
    Sinclair NR. Low-dose steroid therapy in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients with well-functioning grafts. The Canadian Multicentre Transplant Study Group. CMAJ 1992; 147: 645657.
  • 7
    Hricik DE, O'Toole MA, Schulak JA et al. Steroid-free immunosuppression in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients: a meta-analysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 1993; 4: 13001305.
  • 8
    Kasiske BL, Chakkera HA, Louis TA et al. A meta-analysis of immunosuppression withdrawal trials in renal transplantation. Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11: 19101917.
  • 9
    Ahsan N, Hricik D, Matas A et al. Prednisone withdrawal in kidney transplant recipients on cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil—a prospective randomized study. Steroid Withdrawal Study Group. Transplantation 1999; 68: 18651874.
  • 10
    Vanrenterghem Y, Lebranchu Y, Hene R et al. Double-blind comparison of two corticosteroid regimens plus mycophenolate mofetil and cyclosporine for prevention of acute renal allograft rejection. Transplantation 2000; 70: 13521359.DOI: 10.1097/00007890-200011150-00015
  • 11
    Birkeland SA. Steroid-free immunosuppression in renal transplantation: a long-term follow-up of 100 consecutive patients. Transplantation 2001; 71: 10891090.
  • 12
    Matas AJ, Ramcharan T, Paraskevas S et al. Rapid discontinuation of steroids in living donor kidney transplantation: a pilot study. Am J Transplant 2001; 1: 278283.DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-6143.2001.001003278.x
  • 13
    Kandaswamy R, Humar A, Khwaja K et al. A prospective, randomized study of cyclosporine/CellCept vs. tacrolimus/sirolimus with rapid discontinuation of prednisone (abstract). Am J Transplant 2003; 3: 198.
  • 14
    Kaufman DB, Leventhal JR, Fryer JP et al. Kidney transplantation without prednisone (abstract). Transplantation 2000; 69: S133.
  • 15
    Vincenti F, Monaco A, Grinyo J et al. Multicenter randomized prospective trial of steroid withdrawal in renal transplant recipients receiving basiliximab, cyclosporine microemulsion and mycophenolate mofetil. Am J Transplant 2003; 3: 306311.DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-6143.2003.00005.x
  • 16
    Leventhal JR, Kaufman DB, Lorenzo G et al. Four-year single center experience with prednisone-free immunosuppression in 434 kidney transplant recipients (abstract). Am J Transplant 2003; 3: 439.DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-6143.2003.00059.x
  • 17
    Cole E, Landsberg D, Russell D et al. A pilot study of steroid-free immunosuppression in the prevention of acute rejection in renal allograft recipients. Transplantation 2001; 72: 845850.
  • 18
    Sarwal MM, Yorgin PD, Alexander S et al. Promising early outcomes with a novel, complete steroid avoidance immunosuppression protocol in pediatric renal transplantation. Transplantation 2001; 72: 1321.DOI: 10.1097/00007890-200107150-00006
  • 19
    Boots JM, Christiaans MH, Van Duijnhoven EM, Van Suylen RJ, Van Hooff JP. Early steroid withdrawal in renal transplantation with tacrolimus dual therapy: a pilot study. Transplantation 2002; 74: 17031709.
  • 20
    Calne R, Moffatt SD, Friend PJ, Jamieson NV, Bradley JA, Hale G. Campath IH allows low-dose cyclosporine monotherapy in 31 cadaveric renal allograft recipients. Transplantation 1999; 68: 16131616.
  • 21
    Khwaja K, Asolati M, Harmon J et al. Outcome at 3 years with a prednisone-free maintenance regimen: a single-center experience with 349 kidney transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2004; 4: 980987.DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2004.00443.x
  • 22
    Matas AJ, Kandaswamy R, Humar A et al. Long-term immunosuppression, without maintenance prednisone, after kidney transplantation. Ann Surg 2004; 240: 510517.
  • 23
    Sarwal MM, Vidhun JR, Alexander SR et al. Continued superior outcomes with modification and lengthened follow-up of a steroid-avoidance pilot with extended dacluzimab induction in pediatric renal transplantation. Transplantation 2003; 76: 13311339.DOI: 10.1097/01.TP.0000092950.54184.67
  • 24
    Sousa JE, Costa MA, Abizaid A et al. Lack of neointimal proliferation after implantation of sirolimus-coated stents in human coronary arteries. A quantitative coronary angiography and three-dimensional intravascular ultrasound study. Circulation 2001; 103: 192195.
  • 25
    Luo Y, Marx SO, Kiyokawa H, Koff A, Massague J, Marks AR. Rapamycin resistance tied to defective regulation of p27Kip1. Mol Cell Biol 1996; 16: 67446751.
  • 26
    Poon M, Marx SO, Gallo R, Badimon JJ, Taubman MB, Marks AR. Rapamycin inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration. J Clin Invest 1996; 98: 22772283.
  • 27
    Gregory CR, Huang X, Pratt RE et al. Treatment with rapamycin and mycophenolic acid reduces arterial intimal thickening produced by mechanical injury and allows endothelial replacement. Transplantation 1995; 59: 655661.
  • 28
    Burke SE, Lubbers NL, Chen YW et al. Neointimal formation after balloon-induced vascular injury in Yucatan minipigs is reduced by oral rapamycin. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1999; 33: 829835.
  • 29
    Gallo R, Padurean A, Jayaraman T et al. Inhibition of intimal thickening after balloon angioplasty in porcine coronary arteries by targeting regulators of the cell cycle. Circulation 1999; 99: 21642170.
  • 30
    Morice MC, Serruys PW, Sousa JE et al. A randomized comparison of a sirolimus-eluting stent with a standard stent for coronary revascularization. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 17731780.DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa012843
  • 31
    Kahan BD. Efficacy of sirolimus compared with azathioprine for reduction of acute renal allograft rejection: a randomised multicentre study. The Rapamune US Study Group. Lancet 2000; 356: 194202.DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02480-6
  • 32
    MacDonald AS. RAPAMUNE Global Study Group. A worldwide, phase III, randomized, controlled, safety and efficacy study of a sirolimus/cyclosporine regimen for prevention of acute rejection in recipients of primary mismatched renal allografts. Transplantation 2001; 71: 271280.DOI: 10.1097/00007890-200101270-00019
  • 33
    Basadonna GP, Matas AJ, Gillingham KJ et al. Early vs. late acute rejection: impact on chronic rejection. Transplantation 1993; 55: 993995.
  • 34
    Almond PS, Matas AJ, Gillingham KJ et al. Risk factors for chronic rejection in renal allograft recipients. Transplantation 1993; 55: 732737.
  • 35
    Humar A, Hassoun A, Kandaswamy R et al. Immunologic factors: the major risk for decreased long-term graft survival. Transplantation 1999; 68: 18411846.
  • 36
    Mita MM, Mita A, Rowinsky EK. The molecular target of rapamycin (mTOR) as a therapeutic target against cancer. Cancer Biol Ther 2003; 2: S169S177.
  • 37
    Prasad GV, Nash MM, McFarlane PA, Zaltzman JS. Renal transplant recipient attitudes toward steroid use and steroid withdrawal. Clin Transplant 2003; 17: 135139.DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-0012.2003.00034.x
  • 38
    Almawi WY, Melemedjian OK, Rieder MJ. An alternate mechanism of glucocorticoid anti-proliferative effect: promotion of a Th2 cytokine-secreting profile. Clin Transplant 1999; 13: 365374.DOI: 10.1034/j.1399-0012.1999.130501.x