Full publication of abstracts presented at scientific meetings ranges from 25–74%. To determine the rate and factors associated with publication in organ transplantation, we examined abstracts presented at the American Transplant Congress in May 2000. Of 1147 abstracts, 607 (53%) achieved full publication at 4.5 years (mean 1.32 ± 0.88 years). Fifty-nine percent (357/607) were published in three transplantation journals. For randomized trials, the proportion published was 61%. On multivariate analysis, industry sponsorship (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.04–3.06), basic science research (OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.32–2.14), non-American center (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.28–2.20) and oral presentation (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.07–1.73) were independent predictors of full publication. Nearly half of all abstracts presented at a transplantation meeting remain unpublished. This finding needs to be considered when interpreting systematic reviews in the field of transplantation.