• MMF;
  • PMN;
  • side effect

Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is increasingly used to prevent acute and chronic rejection following kidney transplantation and in autoimmune diseases. Here, we report on a patient after kidney transplantation, who developed an acute inflammatory syndrome characterized by fever and oligoarthritis within 1 week after increasing the MMF dosage. MMF was discontinued resulting in a complete resolution of the syndrome within 48 h. We demonstrated in vitro that the patient's phorbol myristate acetate (PMA-) and formyl Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP-) stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) developed increased oxidative burst when incubated with MMF. This report demonstrates that MMF can also induce acute inflammatory syndrome in patients following kidney transplantation and that this syndrome might be due to a paradox, pro-inflammatory reaction of PMNs.