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The growing shortage of deceased-donor kidneys and the rapid growth in the number of patients with end-stage renal failure aged 65 years and older is impacting the current policies for allocation of allografts. The utilitarian and egalitarian philosophies may clash in times of limited resources. Organ transplantation can be viewed as a microcosm concerning healthcare issues facing an aging population and limited resources. The limited resources in organ transplantation are not merely financial. The limits on supply of deceased-donor organs will force the transplant community to deal with allocation issues before the more general population faces other limits in health care. Our discussions may clarify some of the problems.