Inflammatory Bowel Disease After Liver Transplantation: Risk Factors for Recurrence and De Novo Disease

Authors

  • R. C. Verdonk,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Surgery, Section of Transplant Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
    2. Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Search for more papers by this author
  • G. Dijkstra,

    1. Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Search for more papers by this author
  • E. B. Haagsma,

    1. Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Search for more papers by this author
  • V. K. Shostrom,

    1. Department of Preventive and Societal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • A. P. Van den Berg,

    1. Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Search for more papers by this author
  • J. H. Kleibeuker,

    1. Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
    Search for more papers by this author
  • A. N. Langnas,

    1. Department of Surgery, Section of Transplant Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
    Search for more papers by this author
  • D. L. Sudan

    1. Department of Surgery, Section of Transplant Surgery, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA
    Search for more papers by this author

* Corresponding author: R. C. Verdonk, r.c.verdonk@int.umcg.nl

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and can recur or develop de novo after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of IBD after liver transplantation and to perform a multivariate analysis for possible risk factors. In this retrospective study, 91 patients transplanted for PSC or AIH, without prior colectomy, were included. Sixty patients were transplanted for PSC, 31 for AIH. IBD activity before and after OLT and other possible risk factors were analysed in a multivariate model. Forty-nine patients (54%) had IBD before OLT. Forty patients (44%) had active IBD after transplantation: recurrence in 32 and de novo in 8. Cumulative risk for IBD after OLT was 15, 39 and 54% after 1, 5 and 10 years, respectively. In 59% of patients with IBD prior to OLT the disease was more active after transplantation. Risk factors for recurrent disease were: symptoms at time of OLT, short interval of IBD before OLT and use of tacrolimus. 5-aminosalicylates were protective. A cytomegalovirus positive donor/negative recipient combination increased the risk for de novo IBD.

Ancillary