It is important whether impairment of renal allograft function may deteriorate arterial stiffness in renal transplant recipients. In a cross-sectional study, arterial vascular characteristics were non-invasively determined in 48 patients with renal allograft using applanation tonometry and digital photoplethysmography. Mean age was 51 ± 2 years (mean ± SEM), and studies were performed 17 ± 1 months after transplantation. The stage of chronic kidney disease was based on the glomerular filtration rate. We observed a significant association between the stage of chronic kidney disease and arterial stiffness of large arteries S1 and small arteries S2 in renal transplant recipients (each p < 0.05 by non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis test between groups). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that male gender of patients with renal allograft (p < 0.01) reduced glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.01), and older age of kidney donor (p = 0.04) were independently associated with an increase of large artery stiffness S1. Furthermore, a significant association between the stage of chronic kidney disease and arterial vascular reactivity during reactive hyperemia was observed (p < 0.05 by non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis test between groups). It is concluded that impairment of renal allograft function is associated with an increased arterial stiffness in renal transplant recipients.