• Cytomegalovirus infection;
  • EBV infection;
  • liver transplantation;
  • posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease

A randomized controlled trial of CMV-IVIG (cytomegalovirus-intravenous immunoglobulin) for prevention of Epstein Barr virus (EBV) posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) in pediatric liver transplantation (PLTx) recipients was begun in Pittsburgh and subsequently expanded to four additional sites. Protocol EB viral loads were obtained in a blinded fashion; additional loads could be obtained for clinical indications. Patients were followed for 2 years post-LTx. Eighty-two evaluable patients (39 CMV-IVIG, 43 placebo) developed 18 episodes of EBV disease (7 CMV-IVIG, 11 placebo) including nine cases of PTLD (three CMV-IVIG, six placebo). No significant differences were seen in the adjusted 2-year EBV disease-free rate (CMV-IVIG 79%, placebo 71%) and PTLD-free rate (CMV-IVIG 91%, placebo 84%) between treatment and placebo groups at 2 years (p > 0.20). The absence of significant effect of CMV-IVIG may be explained by a lack of efficacy of the drug or limitations of sample size.