Attitudes toward monetary and nonmonetary incentives for living (LD) and deceased donation (DD) among the U.S. general public and different racial/ethnic and income groups have not been systematically studied. We studied attitudes via a telephone questionnaire administered to persons aged 18–75 in the continental United States. Among 845 participants (85% of randomized households), less than one-fifth participants were in favor of incentives for DD (range 7–17%). Most persons were in favor of reimbursement of medical costs (91%), paid leave (84%) and priority on the waiting list (59%) for LD. African Americans and Hispanics were more likely than Whites to be in favor of some incentives for DD. African Americans were more likely than Whites to be in favor of monetary incentives for LD. Whites with incomes less than $20 000 were more likely than Whites with greater incomes to be in favor of reimbursement for deceased donors' funeral expenses or medical expenses. The U.S. public is not generally supportive of incentives for DD, but is supportive of limited incentives for LD. Racial/ethnic minorities are more supportive than Whites of some incentives. Persons with low income may be more accepting of certain monetary incentives.