• 1
    Hariharan S, Johnson CP, Bresnahan BA, Taranto SE, McIntosh MJ, Stablein D. Improved graft survival after renal transplantation in the United States, 1988 to 1996. N Engl J Med 2000; 342: 605612.
  • 2
    Meier-Kriesche HU, Schold JD, Srinivas TR, Kaplan B. Lack of improvement in renal allograft survival despite a marked decrease in acute rejection rates over the most recent era. Am J Transplant 2004; 4: 378383.
  • 3
    Kasiske BL, Gaston RS, Gourishankar S et al. Long-Term deterioration of kidney allograft function. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 14051414.
  • 4
    Colvin RB. Chronic allograft nephropathy. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 22882290.
  • 5
    Paul LC. Chronic allograft nephropathy: An update. Kidney Int 1999; 56: 783793.
  • 6
    Rush D, Nickerson P, Gough J et al. Beneficial effects of treatment of early subclinical rejection: A randomized study. J Am Soc Nephrol 1998; 9: 21292134.
  • 7
    Rush DN, Jeffery JR, Gough J. Sequential protocol biopsies in renal transplant patients. Clinico-pathological correlations using the Banff schema. Transplantation 1995; 59: 511514.
  • 8
    Rush DN, Jeffery JR, Gough J. Sequential protocol biopsies in renal transplant patients: Repeated inflammation is associated with impaired graft function at 1 year. Transplant Proc 1995; 27: 10171018.
  • 9
    Schwarz A, Mengel M, Gwinner W et al. Risk factors for chronic allograft nephropathy after renal transplantation: A protocol biopsy study. Kidney Int 2005; 67: 341348.
  • 10
    Seron D, Moreso F, Bover J et al. Early protocol renal allograft biopsies and graft outcome. Kidney Int 1997; 51: 310316.
  • 11
    Seron D, Moreso F. Protocol biopsies and risk factors associated with chronic allograft nephropathy. Transplant Proc 2002; 34: 331332.
  • 12
    Nankivell BJ, Borrows RJ, Fung CL, O'Connell PJ, Allen RD, Chapman JR. The natural history of chronic allograft nephropathy. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 23262333.
  • 13
    Choi BS, Shin MJ, Shin SJ et al. Clinical significance of an early protocol biopsy in living-donor renal transplantation: Ten-year experience at a single center. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 13541360.
  • 14
    Chapman JR, O'Connell PJ, Nankivell BJ. Chronic renal allograft dysfunction. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16: 30153026.
  • 15
    Racusen LC, Colvin RB, Solez K et al. Antibody-mediated rejection criteria – An addition to the Banff 97 classification of renal allograft rejection. Am J Transplant 2003; 3: 708714.
  • 16
    Racusen LC, Solez K, Colvin RB et al. The Banff 97 working classification of renal allograft pathology. Kidney Int 1999; 55: 713723.
  • 17
    Colvin RB, Cohen AH, Saiontz C et al. Evaluation of pathologic criteria for acute renal allograft rejection: Reproducibility, sensitivity, and clinical correlation. J Am Soc Nephrol 1997; 8: 19301941.
  • 18
    Cosio FG, Grande JP, Wadei H, Larson TS, Griffin MD, Stegall MD. Predicting subsequent decline in kidney allograft function from early surveillance biopsies. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 24642472.
  • 19
    Moreso F, Ibernon M, Goma M et al. Subclinical rejection associated with chronic allograft nephropathy in protocol biopsies as a risk factor for late graft loss. Am J Transplant 2006; 6: 747752.
  • 20
    Schwarz A, Mengel M, Gwinner W et al. Protocol biopsy program after renal transplantation: Structure and first results. Transplant Proc 2002; 34: 22382239.
  • 21
    Schwarz A, Gwinner W, Hiss M, Radermacher J, Mengel M, Haller H. Safety and adequacy of renal transplant protocol biopsies. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 19921996.
  • 22
    Gwinner W, Suppa S, Mengel M et al. Early calcification of renal allografts detected by protocol biopsies: Causes and clinical implications. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 19341941.
  • 23
    Solez K. International standardization of criteria for histologic diagnosis of chronic rejection in renal allografts. Clin Transplant 1994; 8: 345350.
  • 24
    Solez K, Axelsen RA, Benediktsson H et al. International standardization of criteria for the histologic diagnosis of renal allograft rejection: The Banff working classification of kidney transplant pathology. Kidney Int 1993; 44: 411422.
  • 25
    Solez K, Hansen HE, Kornerup HJ et al. Clinical validation and reproducibility of the Banff schema for renal allograft pathology. Transplant Proc 1995; 27: 10091011.
  • 26
    Einecke G, Melk A, Ramassar V et al. Expression of CTL associated transcripts precedes the development of tubulitis in T-cell mediated kidney graft rejection. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 18271836.
  • 27
    Hippen BE, DeMattos A, Cook WJ, Kew CE, Gaston RS. Association of CD20+ infiltrates with poorer clinical outcomes in acute cellular rejection of renal allografts. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 22482252.
  • 28
    Sarwal M, Chua MS, Kambham N et al. Molecular heterogeneity in acute renal allograft rejection identified by DNA microarray profiling. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 125138.
  • 29
    Alausa M, Almagro U, Siddiqi N, Zuiderweg R, Medipalli R, Hariharan S. Refractory acute kidney transplant rejection with CD20 graft infiltrates and successful therapy with rituximab. Clin Transplant 2005; 19: 137140.
  • 30
    Townsend SE, Goodnow CC. Abortive proliferation of rare T cells induced by direct or indirect antigen presentation by rare B cells in vivo. J Exp Med 1998; 187: 16111621.
  • 31
    Steinmetz OM, Panzer U, Kneissler U et al. BCA-1/CXCL13 expression is associated with CXCR5-positive B-cell cluster formation in acute renal transplant rejection. Kidney Int 2005; 67: 16161621.
  • 32
    Rivera A, Chen CC, Ron N, Dougherty JP, Ron Y. Role of B cells as antigen-presenting cells in vivo revisited: Antigen-specific B cells are essential for T cell expansion in lymph nodes and for systemic T cell responses to low antigen concentrations. Int Immunol 2001; 13: 15831593.
  • 33
    Kerjaschki D, Regele HM, Moosberger I et al. Lymphatic neoangiogenesis in human kidney transplants is associated with immunologically active lymphocytic infiltrates. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 603612.
  • 34
    Fu YX, Chaplin DD. Development and maturation of secondary lymphoid tissues. Annu Rev Immunol 1999; 17: 399433.
  • 35
    Constant SL. B lymphocytes as antigen-presenting cells for CD4+ T cell priming in vivo. J Immunol 1999; 162: 56955703.
  • 36
    Chan O, Shlomchik MJ. A new role for B cells in systemic autoimmunity: B cells promote spontaneous T cell activation in MRL-lpr/lpr mice. J Immunol 1998; 160: 5159.
  • 37
    Bhogal RK, Bona CA. B cells: No longer bystanders in liver fibrosis. J Clin Invest 2005; 115: 29622965.
  • 38
    Novobrantseva TI, Majeau GR, Amatucci A et al. Attenuated liver fibrosis in the absence of B cells. J Clin Invest 2005; 115: 30723082.
  • 39
    Lehnhardt A, Mengel M, Pape L, Ehrich JH, Offner G, Strehlau J. Nodular B-cell aggregates associated with treatment refractory renal transplant rejection resolved by rituximab. Am J Transplant 2006; 6: 847851.
  • 40
    Nankivell BJ, Borrows RJ, Fung CL, O'Connell PJ, Chapman JR, Allen RD. Delta analysis of posttransplantation tubulointerstitial damage. Transplantation 2004; 78: 434441.
  • 41
    Shishido S, Asanuma H, Nakai H, Mori Y, Satoh H, Kamimaki I et al. The impact of repeated subclinical acute rejection on the progression of chronic allograft nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14: 10461052.
  • 42
    Einecke G, Fairhead T, Hidalgo LG et al. Tubulitis and epithelial cell alterations in mouse kidney transplant rejection are independent of CD103, perforin or granzymes A/B. Am J Transplant 2006; 6: 21042120.
  • 43
    Halloran PF, Melk A, Barth C. Rethinking chronic allograft nephropathy: The concept of accelerated senescence. J Am Soc Nephrol 1999; 10: 167181.