Nearly one-quarter of the kidney transplant waiting list is composed of repeat transplantation candidates. Survival following retransplantation using expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys has not been adequately studied. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we analyzed mortality after retransplantation with ECD and non-ECD deceased-donor kidneys. Adult patients who experienced graft failure and were relisted for transplantation between 1995 and 2004 were studied (n = 9641). Follow-up began at the date of relisting and continued until death or the end of the observation period (December 31, 2004), with censoring at living-donor transplantation. Sequential stratification (an extension of Cox regression) was used to compare mortality between patients receiving an ECD retransplant and those remaining on the waiting list or receiving a non-ECD retransplant (conventional therapy). Of 2908 retransplantations, 292 used ECD kidneys. Survival after ECD retransplantation was approximately equal to that of conventional therapy, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.98 (p = 0.88). In contrast, non-ECD retransplant recipients experienced a significant reduction in mortality (HR = 0.44; p < 0.0001). Based on these national data, recipients of ECD retransplantation do not have a survival advantage relative to conventional therapy, whereas non-ECD retransplantation is associated with a significant survival advantage.