Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant recipients. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence, microbiology and outcomes of BSIs in transplant recipients in Spain. The Spanish Network for Research on Infection in Transplantation (RESITRA) is formed by 16 centers with transplant program in Spain. The incidence and characteristics of BSIs in transplant patients were obtained prospectively from the cohort. We included 3926 transplant recipients (2935 solid organ and 991 hematopoietic stem cell transplants). Overall, 730 episodes of BSIs were recorded with an incidence rate ranging from 3 episodes per 10 000 transplant days in kidney recipients to 44 episodes per 10 000 transplant days in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The most frequent sources were intravascular catheters and the most frequent microorganisms isolated were coagulase-negative staphylococci. Crude mortality of BSIs was 7.8%, being highest in liver recipients (16%). Multidrug resistant nonfermentative gram-negative BSIs had significantly worse prognosis than those caused by their susceptible counterparts (p = 0.015), but no differences were found between resistant and susceptible gram-negative enteric bacilli, S. aureus or Candida spp. BSIs are still a major concern in transplant recipients. The increasing isolations of multiresistant microorganisms represent a challenge for the next years.