• 1
    Lindelof B, Sigurgeirsson B, Gabel H, Stern RS. Incidence of skin cancer in 5356 patients following organ transplantation. Br J Dermatol 2000; 143: 513519.
  • 2
    Naldi L, Fortina AB, Lovati S et al. Risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Italian organ transplant recipients. A registry-based study. Transplantation 2000; 70: 14791484.
  • 3
    Hartevelt MM, Bavinck JN, Kootte AM, Vermeer BJ, Vandenbroucke JP. Incidence of skin cancer after renal transplantation in The Netherlands. Transplantation 1990; 49: 506509.
  • 4
    Ramsay HM, Hawley CM, Smith AG, Harden PN. Non-melanoma skin cancer risk in the Queensland renal transplant population. Br J Dermatol 2002; 147: 950956.
  • 5
    Mehrany K, Weenig RH, Lee KK, Pittelkow MR, Otley CC. Increased metastasis and mortality from cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. J Am Acad Dermatol 2005; 53: 10671071.
  • 6
    Wilkins K, Turner R, Dolev JC, LeBoit PE, Berger TG, Maurer TA. Cutaneous malignancy and human immunodeficiency virus disease. J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 54: 189206; quiz 207–110.
  • 7
    Berg D, Otley CC. Skin cancer in organ transplant recipients: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 47: 117; quiz 18–20.
  • 8
    Otley CC, Pittelkow MR. Skin cancer in liver transplant recipients. Liver Transpl 2000; 6: 253262.
  • 9
    Euvrard S, Kanitakis J, Claudy A. Skin cancers after organ transplantation. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 16811691.
  • 10
    Stockfleth E, Ulrich C, Meyer T, Christophers E. Epithelial malignancies in organ transplant patients: Clinical presentation and new methods of treatment. Recent Results Cancer Res 2002; 160: 251258.
  • 11
    Ong CS, Keogh AM, Kossard S, Macdonald PS, Spratt PM. Skin cancer in Australian heart transplant recipients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999; 40: 2734.
  • 12
    Osterlind A. Etiology and epidemiology of melanoma and skin neoplasms. Curr Opin Oncol 1991; 3: 355359.
  • 13
    Strom SS, Yamamura Y. Epidemiology of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Clin Plast Surg 1997; 24: 627636.
  • 14
    Chuang TY, Brashear R. Risk factors of non-melanoma skin cancer in United States veterans patients: A pilot study and review of literature. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 1999; 12: 126132.
  • 15
    Caforio AL, Fortina AB, Piaserico S et al. Skin cancer in heart transplant recipients: Risk factor analysis and relevance of immunosuppressive therapy. Circulation 2000; 102(19 Suppl 3): III222III227.
  • 16
    Dantal J, Pohanka E. Malignancies in renal transplantation: An unmet medical need. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007; 22(Suppl 1): i4i10.
  • 17
    De Gruijl FR. Photocarcinogenesis: UVA vs UVB. Methods Enzymol 2000; 319: 359366.
  • 18
    Gerber B, Mathys P, Moser M, Bressoud D, Braun-Fahrlander C. Ultraviolet emission spectra of sunbeds. Photochem Photobiol 2002; 76: 664668.
  • 19
    De Gruijl FR. Photocarcinogenesis: UVA vs. UVB radiation. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 2002; 15: 316320.
  • 20
    Hruza LL, Pentland AP. Mechanisms of UV-induced inflammation. J Invest Dermatol 1993; 100: 35S41S.
  • 21
    Pearse AD, Marks R. Response of human skin to ultraviolet radiation: Dissociation of erythema and metabolic changes following sunscreen protection. J Invest Dermatol 1983; 80: 191194.
  • 22
    Chouinard N, Therrien JP, Mitchell DL, Robert M, Drouin R, Rouabhia M. Repeated exposures of human skin equivalent to low doses of ultraviolet-B radiation lead to changes in cellular functions and accumulation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. Biochem Cell Biol 2001; 79: 507515.
  • 23
    Di Nuzzo S, Sylva-Steenland RM, Koomen CW et al. Exposure to UVB induces accumulation of LFA-1 +T cells and enhanced expression of the chemokine psoriasin in normal human skin. Photochem Photobiol 2000; 72: 374382.
  • 24
    Clydesdale GJ, Dandie GW, Muller HK. Ultraviolet light induced injury: Immunological and inflammatory effects. Immunol Cell Biol 2001; 79: 547568.
    Direct Link:
  • 25
    Sams RL, 2nd, Couch LH, Miller BJ et al. Effects of alpha- and beta-hydroxy acids on the edemal response induced in female SKH-1 mice by simulated solar light. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2002; 184: 136143.
  • 26
    Hawk JL, Murphy GM, Holden CA. The presence of neutrophils in human cutaneous ultraviolet-B inflammation. Br J Dermatol 1988; 118: 2730.
  • 27
    Wilgus TA, Ross MS, Parrett ML, Oberyszyn TM. Topical application of a selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor suppresses UVB mediated cutaneous inflammation. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2000; 62: 367384.
  • 28
    Terui T, Tagami H. Mediators of inflammation involved in UVB erythema. J Dermatol Sci 2000; 23(Suppl 1): S1S5.
  • 29
    Scapini P, Lapinet-Vera JA, Gasperini S, Calzetti F, Bazzoni F, Cassatella MA. The neutrophil as a cellular source of chemokines. Immunol Rev 2000; 177: 195203.
  • 30
    Robertson FM, Long BW, Tober KL, Ross MS, Oberyszyn TM. Gene expression and cellular sources of inducible nitric oxide synthase during tumor promotion. Carcinogenesis 1996; 17: 20532059.
  • 31
    Katiyar SK, Mukhtar H. Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment to mouse skin prevents UVB-induced infiltration of leukocytes, depletion of antigen-presenting cells, and oxidative stress. J Leukoc Biol 2001; 69: 719726.
  • 32
    Angelo LS, Kurzrock R. Vascular endothelial growth factor and its relationship to inflammatory mediators. Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13: 28252830.
  • 33
    Lu H, Ouyang W, Huang C. Inflammation, a key event in cancer development. Mol Cancer Res 2006; 4: 221233.
  • 34
    Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S, Sandur SK, Pandey MK, Sethi G. Inflammation and cancer: How hot is the link? Biochem Pharmacol 2006; 72: 16051621.
  • 35
    Dermond O, Ruegg C. Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: Emerging mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives. Drug Resist Updat 2001; 4: 314321.
  • 36
    Wilgus TA, Koki AT, Zweifel BS, Kusewitt DF, Rubal PA, Oberyszyn TM. Inhibition of cutaneous ultraviolet light B-mediated inflammation and tumor formation with topical celecoxib treatment. Mol Carcinog 2003; 38: 4958.
  • 37
    Ulrich C, Busch JO, Meyer T et al. Successful treatment of multiple actinic keratoses in organ transplant patients with topical 5% imiquimod: A report of six cases. Br J Dermatol 2006; 155: 451454.
  • 38
    Stockfleth E, Christophers E, Benninghoff B, Sterry W. Low incidence of new actinic keratoses after topical 5% imiquimod cream treatment: A long-term follow-up study. Arch Dermatol 2004; 140: 1542.
  • 39
    Stockfleth E, Trefzer U, Garcia-Bartels C, Wegner T, Schmook T, Sterry W. The use of Toll-like receptor-7 agonist in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma: An overview. Br J Dermatol 2003; 149(Suppl 66): 5356.
  • 40
    Stockfleth E, Ulrich C, Meyer T, Christophers E. Epithelial malignancies in organ transplant patients: Clinical presentation and new methods of treatment. Recent Results Cancer Res 2002; 160: 251258.
  • 41
    Blaha P, Bigenzahn S, Koporc Z et al. The influence of immunosuppressive drugs on tolerance induction through bone marrow transplantation with costimulation blockade. Blood 2003; 101: 28862893.
  • 42
    Thomas-Ahner JM, Wulff BC, Tober KL, Kusewitt DF, Riggenbach JA, Oberyszyn TM. Gender differences in UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis, inflammation, and DNA damage. Cancer res 2007; 67: 34683474.
  • 43
    Hatton JL, Parent A, Tober KL et al. Depletion of CD4+ cells exacerbates the cutaneous response to acute and chronic UVB exposure. J Invest Dermatol 2007; 127: 15071515.
  • 44
    Bolontrade MF, Stern MC, Binder RL, Zenklusen JC, Gimenez-Conti IB, Conti CJ. Angiogenesis is an early event in the development of chemically induced skin tumors. Carcinogenesis 1998; 19: 21072113.
  • 45
    Folkman J. Angiogenesis in cancer, vascular, rheumatoid and other disease. Nat Med 1995; 1: 2731.
  • 46
    Folkman J. The role of angiogenesis in tumor growth. Semin Cancer Biol 1992; 3: 6571.
  • 47
    Folkman J, Watson K, Ingber D, Hanahan D. Induction of angiogenesis during the transition from hyperplasia to neoplasia. Nature 1989; 339: 5861.
  • 48
    Fortina AB, Caforio AL, Piaserico S et al. Skin cancer in heart transplant recipients: Frequency and risk factor analysis. J Heart Lung Transplant 2000; 19: 249255.
  • 49
    Holmberg SD, Buchbinder SP, Conley LJ et al. The spectrum of medical conditions and symptoms before acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in homosexual and bisexual men infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Am J Epidemiol 1995; 141: 395404; discussion 405–396.
  • 50
    Cooksley CD, Hwang LY, Waller DK, Ford CE. HIV-related malignancies: Community-based study using linkage of cancer registry and HIV registry data. Int J STD AIDS 1999; 10: 795802.
  • 51
    Agnew KL, Ruchlemer R, Catovsky D, Matutes E, Bunker CB. Cutaneous findings in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Br J Dermatol 2004; 150: 11291135.
  • 52
    Levi F, Randimbison L, Te VC, La Vecchia C. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, chronic lymphocytic leukaemias and skin cancers. Br J Cancer 1996; 74: 18471850.
  • 53
    Hemminki K, Jiang Y, Steineck G. Skin cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as second malignancies. markers of impaired immune function? Eur J Cancer 2003; 39: 223229.
  • 54
    Mehrany K, Weenig RH, Pittelkow MR, Roenigk RK, Otley CC. High recurrence rates of squamous cell carcinoma after Mohs' surgery in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Dermatol Surg 2005; 31: 3842; discussion 42.
  • 55
    Kinlen LJ. Incidence of cancer in rheumatoid arthritis and other disorders after immunosuppressive treatment. Am J Med 1985; 78(1A): 4449.
  • 56
    Ragnarsson O, Grondal G, Steinsson K. Risk of malignancy in an unselected cohort of Icelandic patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 2003; 12: 687691.
  • 57
    Bjornadal L, Lofstrom B, Yin L, Lundberg IE, Ekbom A. Increased cancer incidence in a Swedish cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Scand J Rheumatol 2002; 31: 6671.
  • 58
    Askling J, Fored CM, Brandt L et al. Risks of solid cancers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and after treatment with tumour necrosis factor antagonists. Ann Rheum Dis 2005; 64: 14211426.
  • 59
    Smith KJ, Hamza S, Skelton H. Histologic features in primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas in immunocompromised patients focusing on organ transplant patients. Dermatol Surg 2004; 30(4 Pt 2): 634641.
  • 60
    Hampton T. Skin cancer's ranks rise: Immunosuppression to blame. JAMA 2005; 294: 14761480.
  • 61
    Wimmer CD, Rentsch M, Crispin A et al. The janus face of immunosuppression—de novo malignancy after renal transplantation: the experience of the Transplantation Center Munich. Kidney Int 2007.
  • 62
    Robinson JK, Rigel DS. Sun protection attitudes and behaviors of solid-organ transplant recipients. Dermatol Surg 2004; 30(4 Pt 2): 610615.
  • 63
    Moloney FJ, Almarzouqi E, O'Kelly P, Conlon P, Murphy GM. Sunscreen use before and after transplantation and assessment of risk factors associated with skin cancer development in renal transplant recipients. Arch Dermatol 2005; 141: 978982.
  • 64
    Seukeran DC, Newstead CG, Cunliffe WJ. The compliance of renal transplant recipients with advice about sun protection measures. Br J Dermatol 1998; 138: 301303.
  • 65
    Hojo M, Morimoto T, Maluccio M et al. Cyclosporine induces cancer progression by a cell-autonomous mechanism [see comments]. Nature 1999; 397: 530534.
  • 66
    Yarosh DB, Pena AV, Nay SL, Canning MT, Brown DA. Calcineurin inhibitors decrease DNA repair and apoptosis in human keratinocytes following ultraviolet B irradiation. J Invest Dermatol 2005; 125: 10201025.
  • 67
    Guba M, Von Breitenbuch P, Steinbauer M et al. Rapamycin inhibits primary and metastatic tumor growth by antiangiogenesis: Involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor. Nat Med 2002; 8: 128135.
  • 68
    Koehl GE, Gaumann A, Zuelke C et al. Development of de novo cancer in p53 knock-out mice is dependent on the type of long-term immunosuppression used. Transplantation 2006; 82: 741748.
  • 69
    Mabuchi S, Altomare DA, Connolly DC et al. RAD001 (Everolimus) delays tumor onset and progression in a transgenic mouse model of ovarian cancer. Cancer res 2007; 67: 24082413.
  • 70
    Herrero JI, Espana A, Quiroga J et al. Nonmelanoma skin cancer after liver transplantation. Study of risk factors. Liver Transpl 2005; 11: 11001106.
  • 71
    Saladi RN, Persaud AN. The causes of skin cancer: A comprehensive review. Drugs Today (Barc) 2005; 41: 3753.
  • 72
    Lebwohl M. Actinic keratosis: Epidemiology and progression to squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol 2003; 149(Suppl 66): 3133.
  • 73
    Oberyszyn TM, Tober KL, Ross MS, Robertson FM. Inhibitory effects of pentoxifylline on ultraviolet B light-induced cutaneous inflammation. Mol Carcinog 1998; 22: 1625.
  • 74
    Tan TT, Coussens LM. Humoral immunity, inflammation and cancer. Curr Opin Immunol 2007; 19: 209216.
  • 75
    Pentland AP, Schoggins JW, Scott GA, Khan KN, Han R. Reduction of UV-induced skin tumors in hairless mice by selective COX-2 inhibition. Carcinogenesis 1999; 20: 19391944.
  • 76
    Bradley PP, Priebat DA, Christensen RD, Rothstein G. Measurement of cutaneous inflammation: Estimation of neutrophil content with an enzyme marker. J Invest Dermatol 1982; 78: 206209.
  • 77
    Callen J, Chamlin S, Eichenfield LF et al. A systematic review of the safety of topical therapies for atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 2007; 156: 203221.
  • 78
    Allison AC, Eugui EM. Mechanisms of action of mycophenolate mofetil in preventing acute and chronic allograft rejection. Transplantation 2005; 80(2 Suppl): S181S190.
  • 79
    Farivar AS, MacKinnon-Patterson B, Barnes AD, Mulligan MS. The effect of anti-inflammatory properties of mycophenolate mofetil on the development of lung reperfusion injury. J Heart Lung Transplant 2005; 24: 22352242.
  • 80
    Heller M, Shin HT, Orlow SJ, Schaffer JV. Mycophenolate mofetil for severe childhood atopic dermatitis: Experience in 14 patients. Br J Dermatol 2007.
  • 81
    Liu V, Mackool BT. Mycophenolate in dermatology. J Dermatol Treatment 2003; 14: 203211.
  • 82
    Huang Y, Liu Z, Huang H, Liu H, Li L. Effects of mycophenolic acid on endothelial cells. Int Immunopharmacol 2005; 5: 10291039.
  • 83
    Koehl GE, Wagner F, Stoeltzing O et al. Mycophenolate mofetil inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in vitro but has variable antitumor effects in vivo, possibly related to bioavailability. Transplantation 2007; 83: 607614.