- Top of page
- Primary Prevention and Lifestyle Choices
- Immunization and Chemoprevention
- Is Increased Prevalence of Cancer Enough to Justify Screening?
- Can Screening Have Negative Consequences?
- Do Screening Tests Perform Well in the Transplant Population?
- Can We Improve Decision Making for Transplant Recipients?
Kidney transplant recipients are at higher risk of cancer at most sites, and cancer after transplantation causes considerable morbidity and mortality. To optimize long-term patient outcomes, clinicians balance the prospect of graft failure and dialysis, with competing risks of diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and the risk of malignancy. In this paper we critically examine the assumptions underpinning primary prevention, immunization, chemoprevention and screening programs, and highlight considerations when applying evidence to the kidney transplant population, and suggest a clinical research agenda that aims to define a rational approach to managing posttransplant cancer risk.