• 1
    Paya C, Humar A, Dominguez E et al. Efficacy and safety of valganciclovir vs. oral ganciclovir for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2004; 4: 611620.
  • 2
    Patel R, Paya CV. Infections in solid-organ transplant recipients. Clin Microbiol Rev 1997; 10: 86124.
  • 3
    Snydman DR. The case for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in solid organ transplantation. Rev Med Virol 2006; 16: 289295.
  • 4
    Kalil AC, Levitsky J, Lyden E, Stoner J, Freifeld AG. Meta-analysis: The efficacy of strategies to prevent organ disease by cytomegalovirus in solid organ transplant recipients. Ann Intern Med 2005; 143: 870880.
  • 5
    Preiksaitis JK, Brennan DC, Fishman J, Allen U. Canadian society of transplantation consensus workshop on cytomegalovirus management in solid organ transplantation final report. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 218227.
  • 6
    Cytomegalovirus. Am J Transplant 2004; 10: 5158.
  • 7
    Erice A, Jordan MC, Chace BA, Fletcher C, Chinnock BJ, Balfour HH Jr. Ganciclovir treatment of cytomegalovirus disease in transplant recipients and other immunocompromised hosts. JAMA 1987; 257: 30823087.
  • 8
    Paya CV, Hermans PE, Smith TF et al. Efficacy of ganciclovir in liver and kidney transplant recipients with severe cytomegalovirus infection. Transplantation 1988; 46: 229234.
  • 9
    Rayes N, Seehofer D, Schmidt CA et al. Prospective randomized trial to assess the value of preemptive oral therapy for CMV infection following liver transplantation. Transplantation 2001; 72: 881885.
  • 10
    Dunn DL, Mayoral JL, Gillingham KJ et al. Treatment of invasive cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant patients with ganciclovir. Transplantation 1991; 51: 98106.
  • 11
    Turgeon N, Fishman JA, Doran M et al. Prevention of recurrent cytomegalovirus disease in renal and liver transplant recipients: Effect of oral ganciclovir. Transpl Infect Dis 2000; 2: 210.
  • 12
    Sawyer MD, Mayoral JL, Gillingham KJ, Kramer MA, Dunn DL. Treatment of recurrent cytomegalovirus disease in patients receiving solid organ transplants. Arch Surg 1993; 128: 165169; discussion 170.
  • 13
    Falagas ME, Snydman DR, Griffith J, Werner BG, Freeman R, Rohrer R. Clinical and epidemiological predictors of recurrent cytomegalovirus disease in orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Boston Center for Liver Transplantation CMVIG Study Group. Clin Infect Dis 1997; 25: 314317.
  • 14
    Humar A, Kumar D, Boivin G, Caliendo AM. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) virus load kinetics to predict recurrent disease in solid-organ transplant patients with CMV disease. J Infect Dis 2002; 186: 829833.
  • 15
    Humar A, Uknis M, Carlone-Jambor C, Gruessner RW, Dunn DL, Matas A. Cytomegalovirus disease recurrence after ganciclovir treatment in kidney and kidney-pancreas transplant recipients. Transplantation 1999; 67: 9497.
  • 16
    Stratta RJ, Shaefer MS, Markin RS et al. Clinical patterns of cytomegalovirus disease after liver transplantation. Arch Surg 1989; 124: 14431449; discussion 1449–1450.
  • 17
    Sia IG, Wilson JA, Groettum CM, Espy MJ, Smith TF, Paya CV. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load predicts relapsing CMV infection after solid organ transplantation. J Infect Dis 2000; 181: 717720.
  • 18
    Van Den Berg AP, Van Son WJ, Haagsma EB et al. Prediction of recurrent cytomegalovirus disease after treatment with ganciclovir in solid-organ transplant recipients. Transplantation 1993; 55: 847851.
  • 19
    Scalzo AA, Corbett AJ, Rawlinson WD, Scott GM, Degli-Esposti MA. The interplay between host and viral factors in shaping the outcome of cytomegalovirus infection. Immunol Cell Biol 2007; 85: 4654.
  • 20
    Li F, Kenyon KW, Kirby KA, Fishbein DP, Boeckh M, Limaye AP. Incidence and clinical features of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus disease in heart transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45: 439447.
  • 21
    Boivin G, Goyette N, Gilbert C et al. Absence of cytomegalovirus-resistance mutations after valganciclovir prophylaxis, in a prospective multicenter study of solid-organ transplant recipients. J Infect Dis 2004; 189: 16151618.
  • 22
    Bhorade SM, Lurain NS, Jordan A et al. Emergence of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus in lung transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant 2002; 21: 12741282.
  • 23
    Limaye AP, Corey L, Koelle DM, Davis CL, Boeckh M. Emergence of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus disease among recipients of solid-organ transplants. Lancet 2000; 356: 645649.
  • 24
    Limaye AP, Raghu G, Koelle DM, Ferrenberg J, Huang ML, Boeckh M. High incidence of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infection among lung transplant recipients receiving preemptive therapy. J Infect Dis 2002; 185: 2027.
  • 25
    Kruger RM, Shannon WD, Arens MQ, Lynch JP, Storch GA, Trulock EP. The impact of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infection after lung transplantation. Transplantation 1999; 68: 12721279.
  • 26
    Åsberg A, Humar A, Rollag H et al. Oral valganciclovir is noninferior to intravenous ganciclovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2007; 7: 21062113.
  • 27
    Boivin G, Gilbert C, Gaudreau A, Greenfield I, Sudlow R, Roberts NA. Rate of emergence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) mutations in leukocytes of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who are receiving valganciclovir as induction and maintenance therapy for CMV retinitis. J Infect Dis 2001; 184: 15981602.
  • 28
    Chou S, Lurain NS, Thompson KD, Miner RC, Drew WL. Viral DNA polymerase mutations associated with drug resistance in human cytomegalovirus. J Infect Dis 2003; 188: 3239.
  • 29
    Chou S, Lurain NS, Weinberg A, Cai GY, Sharma PL, Crumpacker CS. Interstrain variation in the human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase sequence and its effect on genotypic diagnosis of antiviral drug resistance. Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group CMV Laboratories. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999; 43: 15001502.
  • 30
    Chou S, Waldemer RH, Senters AE et al. Cytomegalovirus UL97 phosphotransferase mutations that affect susceptibility to ganciclovir. J Infect Dis 2002; 185: 162169.
  • 31
    Gilbert C, Bestman-Smith J, Boivin G. Resistance of herpesviruses to antiviral drugs: Clinical impacts and molecular mechanisms. Drug Resist Updat 2002; 5: 88114.
  • 32
    Martin M, Gilbert C, Covington E, Boivin G. Characterization of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL97 mutations found in a valganciclovir/oral ganciclovir prophylactic trial by use of a bacterial artificial chromosome containing the HCMV genome. J Infect Dis 2006; 194: 579583.
  • 33
    Brown LD, Cai TT, DasGupta A. Interval estimation for a binominal proportion. Stat Sci 2001; 16: 101133.