The Impact of C4d Pattern and Donor-Specific Antibody on Graft Survival in Recipients Requiring Indication Renal Allograft Biopsy

Authors


* Corresponding author: A. Haririan, ahariria@medicine.umaryland.edu

Abstract

We examined the pattern of PTC C4d by immunohistochemistry and DSA in 297 kidney recipients with indication biopsies, and evaluated their predictive value for graft survival. Median biopsy time was 5.1 months posttransplant. Patients were followed for 17.9 ± 9.4 months postbiopsy. An 18.5% had focal and 15.2% had diffuse C4d, with comparable graft survival (adjusted graft failure HR: 2.3, p = 0.001; HR:1.9, p < 0.02, respectively). 31.3% were DSA+, 19.5% class I and 22.9% class II DSA. Only those with class II DSA had worse outcome (adjusted HR:2.5, p = 0.001 for class II only; HR:2.7, p < 0.001 for class I/II DSA). Among patients with <10%C4d, 23.9% had DSA, compared to 68.9% with diffuse staining. For patients biopsied in first-year posttransplant presence of DSA, regardless of C4d positivity in biopsy, was a poor prognostic factor (adjusted graft failure HR: 4.2, p < 0.02 for C4d−/DSA+; HR:4.9, p = 0.001 for C4d+/DSA+), unlike those biopsied later. We have shown that focal C4d had similar impact on graft survival as diffuse pattern. During the first-year posttransplant either class I or II DSA, and afterward only class II DSA were associated with worse graft survival. DSA was predictive of worse outcome regardless of C4d for patients biopsied in first year and only with C4d positivity afterward, supporting the importance of assessment of both DSA and C4d pattern in biopsy.

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