The deleterious sensitization to donor MHC Ags represents one of the most challenging problems in clinical organ transplantation. Although the role of effector/memory T cells in the rejection cascade has been extensively studied, it remains unknown whether and how these ‘Ag-specific’ cells influence host innate immunity, such as tissue inflammation associated with ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI). In this study, we analyzed how allogeneic skin transplant (Tx) affected the sequel of host's own liver damage induced by partial warm ischemia and reperfusion. Our data clearly showed that allo-Tx recipients had increased inflammatory response against IR insult in their native livers, as evidenced by significantly more severe hepatocelluar damage, compared with syngeneic Tx recipient controls, and determined by serum ALT levels, liver histology (Suzuki's score) and intrahepatic proinflammatory gene inductions (TNF-α, IL-1β and CXCL10). The CD4 T cells, but neither CD8 nor NK cells, mediated the detrimental effect of allo-Ag sensitization in liver IRI. Furthermore, CD154, but not IFN-γ, was the key mechanism in allo-Tx recipients to facilitate IR-triggered liver damage. These results provide new evidence that alloreactive CD4 T cells are capable of enhancing innate tissue inflammation and organ injury via an Ag-nonspecific CD154-dependent but IFN-γ independent mechanism.