Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the key impediment to the long-term survival of lung transplant recipients and the lack of a robust preclinical model precludes examining OB immunopathogenesis. In the current study, lungs from C57BL/10 H-2b mice that are MHC compatible, but minor histocompatability antigen incompatible, were transplanted into C57BL/6 mice. Histological features and cytokine profiles of OB were assessed. Moderate rejection (grade A3) developed by day 14, with evidence of OB at that time point. At 21 days, OB was present in 55% of grafts and moderate to severe rejection (grade A3-A4) was present in all mice. At 28 days, OB was present in 44% of mice and severe rejection (grade A4) was present in all. IL-17A, but not IL-17F, splenic mRNA transcripts and serum protein levels were increased only in mice that developed OB, whereas IL-10 transcripts and protein were increased only in non-OB mice. Neutralizing IL-17 prevented OB, down regulated acute rejection, and upregulated systemic IL-10. Collectively, these data show that transplantation of minor histoincompatible lungs from C57BL/10 mice into C57BL/6 mice results in a highly reproducible preclinical model of OB. In addition, these data indicate that neutralizing IL-17A or augmenting IL-10 could be therapeutic interventions to prevent OB.