• 1
    Ferlay J, Shin H, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, Parkin D. GLOBOCAN 2008, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase. In: No. 10 [Internet]. International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available from:]. Lyon , France ; 2010.
  • 2
    Crespo-Leiro MG, Alonso-Pulpon L, Vazquez de Prada JA et al. Malignancy after heart transplantation: Incidence, prognosis and risk factors. Am J Transplant 2008; 8: 10311039.
  • 3
    O’Neill JO, Edwards LB, Taylor DO. Mycophenolate mofetil and risk of developing malignancy after orthotopic heart transplantation: Analysis of the transplant registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 2006; 25: 11861191.
  • 4
    Jensen P, Hansen S, Moller B et al. Skin cancer in kidney and heart transplant recipients and different long-term immunosuppressive therapy regimens. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999; 40(2 Pt 1): 177186.
  • 5
    Swerdlow A, Higgins G, Hunt B et al. Risk of lymphoid neoplasia after cardiothoracic transplantation. A cohort study of the relation to Epstein-Barr virus. Transplantation 2000; 69: 897904.
  • 6
    Roithmaier S, Haydon AM, Loi S et al. Incidence of malignancies in heart and/or lung transplant recipients: A single-institution experience. J Heart Lung Transplant 2007; 26: 845849.
  • 7
    Kellerman L, Neugut A, Burke B, Mancini D. Comparison of the incidence of de novo solid malignancies after heart transplantation to that in the general population. Am J Cardiol 2009; 103: 562566.
  • 8
    Jiang Y, Villeneuve PJ, Wielgosz A, Schaubel DE, Fenton SS, Mao Y. The incidence of cancer in a population-based cohort of Canadian heart transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2010; 10: 637645.
  • 9
    Serraino D, Piselli P, Busnach G et al. Risk of cancer following immunosuppression in organ transplant recipients and in HIV-positive individuals in southern Europe. Eur J Cancer 2007; 43: 21172123.
  • 10
    Segi M. Cancer mortality for selected sites in 24 countries (1950–57). Sendai : Tohoku University School of Public Health, 1960.
  • 11
    Ferlay J, Bray F, Pisani P, Parkin D. GLOBOCAN 2002, cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide. In: IARC cancer base No. 5 version 2.0. in May 2010]). Lyon , France : IARC Press 2004; 2004.
  • 12
    Clayton D, Hills M. Statistical models in epidemiology. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1993.
  • 13
    Rosner B. Fundamentals of biostatistics, 5th Ed., Belmont , CA : Duxbury Press, 2000.
  • 14
    Hervada Vidal X, Santiago Pérez M, Vázquez Fernández E, Castillo Salgado C, Loyola Elizondo E, Silva Ayçaguer L. Epidat 3.0: Programa para el análisis epidemiológico de datos tabulados. Versión 3.0. Rev Esp Salud Pública 2004; 78: 277280.
  • 15
    Fay M, Feuer E. Confidence intervals for directly standardized rates: A method based on the gamma distribution. Stat Med 1997; 16: 791801.
  • 16
    Collett D, Mumford L, Banner NR, Neuberger J, Watson C. Comparison of the incidence of malignancy in recipients of different types of organ: A UK Registry audit. Am J Transplant 2010; 10: 18891896.
  • 17
    Adami J, Gabel H, Lindelof B et al. Cancer risk following organ transplantation: A nationwide cohort study in Sweden. Br J Cancer 2003; 89: 12211227.
  • 18
    Brewer JD, Colegio OR, Phillips PK et al. Incidence of and risk factors for skin cancer after heart transplant. Arch Dermatol 2009; 145: 13911396.
  • 19
    Goldstein D, Austin J, Zuech N et al. Carcinoma of the lung after heart transplantation. Transplantation 1996; 62: 772775.
  • 20
    Rinaldi M, Pellegrini C, D’Armini AM et al. Neoplastic disease after heart transplantation: Single center experience. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2001; 19: 696701.
  • 21
    Anyanwu AC, Townsend ER, Banner NR, Burke M, Khaghani A, Yacoub MH. Primary lung carcinoma after heart or lung transplantation: Management and outcome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002; 124: 11901197.
  • 22
    Consumo MdSy. Encuesta Nacional de Salud de España 2001; 2004.
  • 23
    Villalbí J, Ariza C. El tabaquismo en España: Situación actual y perspectivas para el movimiento de prevención. In: ArizaC, VillalbíJ, eds. El tabaquismo en España: situación actual y perspectivas para el movimiento de prevención. Barcelona : CNPT y SESPAS, 2000: 315.
  • 24
    Peto R, Darby S, Deo H, Silcocks P, Whitley E, Doll R. Smoking, smoking cessation, and lung cancer in the UK since 1950: Combination of national statistics with two case-control studies. BMJ 2000; 321: 323329.
  • 25
    USDHHS. The Health Benefits of Smoking Cessation. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta U.S. 1990.
  • 26
    Bruschi G, Conforti S, Torre M et al. Long-term results of lung cancer after heart transplantation: Single center 20-year experience. Lung Cancer 2009; 63: 146150.
  • 27
    Mohammadi S, Bonnet N, Leprince P et al. Long-term survival of heart transplant recipients with lung cancer: The role of chest computed tomography screening. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007; 55: 438441.
  • 28
    Miao Y, Everly JJ, Gross TG, Tevar AD, First MR, Alloway RR, Woodle ES. De novo cancers arising in organ transplant recipients are associated with adverse outcomes compared with the general population. Transplantation 2009; 87: 13471359.
  • 29
    Padilla J, Ceron J, Penalver JC, Jorda C, Pastor E, de Aguiar K. [Bronchogenic carcinoma in patients undergoing solid organ transplant. The role of surgery.]. Cir Esp 2009; 86: 101104.
  • 30
    Xing L, Todd NW, Yu L, Fang H, Jiang F. Early detection of squamous cell lung cancer in sputum by a panel of microRNA markers. Mod Pathol 2010; 23: 11571164.
  • 31
    Varella-Garcia M, Schulte AP, Wolf HJ et al. The detection of chromosomal aneusomy by fluorescence in situ hybridization in sputum predicts lung cancer incidence. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2010; 3: 447453.