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Keywords:

  • Innate immunity;
  • ischemia/reperfusion injury;
  • liver;
  • neutrophils;
  • T cells;
  • toll-like receptors

Ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) is a dynamic process that involves two distinctive yet interrelated phases of ischemic organ damage and inflammation-mediated reperfusion injury. Although multiple cellular and molecular pathways contribute and regulate tissue/organ damage, integration of different players into a unified mechanism is warranted. The crosstalk between innate and adaptive immune systems plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of liver IRI. In this review, we focus on recent progress in the mechanism of liver innate immune activation by IR. Kupffer cells (KC), DCs, NK, as well as T cells initiate local inflammation response, the hallmark of IRI, by utilizing distinctive immune receptors to recognize and/or trigger various molecules, both endogenous and exogenous. The interlocked molecular signaling pathways in the context of multiple liver cell types, the IRI kinetics and positive versus negative regulatory loops in the innate immune activation process are discussed. Better appreciation of molecular interactions that mediate these intricate cascades, should allow for the development of novel therapeutic approached against IRI in liver transplant recipients.