Microvesicles (MVs) including exosomes are emerging new biomarkers and potential regulators of inflammation and immunological processes. Such particles contain proteins and genetic information including DNA and microRNAs that may be of importance for cell/cell communication. However, their role during and after organ transplantation and immunomodulatory effects is only in its beginning of understanding. We here, in brief, introduce generation and biological importance of MVs, describe their (patho)physiological roles and their potential use as future biomarkers and therapeutic agents in transplantation medicine. Circulating MVs may have a great potential to detect possible immune rejections and MV modulation may emerge as a therapeutic approach in organ rejection therapy.