• 1
    Xu J, Kochanek KD, Murphy SL. Deaths: Final Data for 2007. National Vital Statistics Reports 2010; 58: 1136.
  • 2
    2009 Annual Report of the U.S. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients: Transplant Data 1999–2008. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Healthcare Systems Bureau, Division of Transplantation; 2009.
  • 3
    Christie JD, Edwards LB, Kucheryavaya AY, et al. The Registry of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation: Twenty-seventh official adult lung and heart-lung transplant report-2010. J Heart Lung Transplant 2010; 29: 11041118.
  • 4
    Hoganson DM, Pryor Ii HI, Bassett EK, Spool ID, Vacanti JP. Lung assist device technology with physiologic blood flow developed on a tissue engineered scaffold platform. Lab Chip 2011; 11: 700707.
  • 5
    Huh D, Matthews BD, Mammoto A, Montoya-Zavala M, Hsin HY, Ingber DE. Reconstituting organ-level lung functions on a chip. Science 2010; 328: 16621668.
  • 6
    Warren L, Manos PD, Ahfeldt T, et al. Highly efficient reprogramming to pluripotency and directed differentiation of human cells with synthetic modified mRNA. Cell Stem Cell 2010; 7: 618630.
  • 7
    Civitareale D, Lonigro R, Sinclair AJ, Di Lauro R. A thyroid-specific nuclear protein essential for tissue-specific expression of the thyroglobulin promoter. EMBO J 1989; 8: 25372542.
  • 8
    Kimura S, Hara Y, Pineau T, et al. The T/ebp null mouse: Thyroid-specific enhancer-binding protein is essential for the organogenesis of the thyroid, lung, ventral forebrain, and pituitary. Genes Dev 1996; 10: 6069.
  • 9
    Serls AE, Doherty S, Parvatiyar P, Wells JM, Deutsch GH. Different thresholds of fibroblast growth factors pattern the ventral foregut into liver and lung. Development 2005; 132: 3547.
  • 10
    Cardoso WV, Kotton DN. Specification and patterning of the respiratory system. In 2010/07/09 ed.: Science Collaboration Framework, 2008.
  • 11
    Eblaghie MC, Reedy M, Oliver T, Mishina Y, Hogan BL. Evidence that autocrine signaling through Bmpr1a regulates the proliferation, survival and morphogenetic behavior of distal lung epithelial cells. Dev Biol 2006; 291: 6782.
  • 12
    Samadikuchaksaraei A, Cohen S, Isaac K, et al. Derivation of distal airway epithelium from human embryonic stem cells. Tissue Eng 2006; 12: 867875.
  • 13
    Qin M, Tai G, Collas P, Polak JM, Bishop AE. Cell extract-derived differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells 2005; 23: 712718.
  • 14
    Coraux C, Nawrocki-Raby B, Hinnrasky J, et al. Embryonic stem cells generate airway epithelial tissue. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2005; 32: 8792.
  • 15
    Van Vranken BE, Romanska HM, Polak JM, Rippon HJ, Shannon JM, Bishop AE. Coculture of embryonic stem cells with pulmonary mesenchyme: A microenvironment that promotes differentiation of pulmonary epithelium. Tissue Eng 2005; 11: 11771187.
  • 16
    Kubo A, Shinozaki K, Shannon JM, et al. Development of definitive endoderm from embryonic stem cells in culture. Development 2004; 131: 16511662.
  • 17
    Green MD, Chen A, Nostro MC, et al. Generation of anterior foregut endoderm from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 2011; 29: 267272.
  • 18
    Wang D, Haviland DL, Burns AR, Zsigmond E, Wetsel RA. A pure population of lung alveolar epithelial type II cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007; 104: 44494454.
  • 19
    Wang D, Morales JE, Calame DG, Alcorn JL, Wetsel RA. Transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived alveolar epithelial type II cells abrogates acute lung injury in mice. Mol Ther 2010; 18: 625634.
  • 20
    Kajstura J, Rota M, Hall SR, et al. Evidence for human lung stem cells. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 17951806.
  • 21
    Hong KU, Reynolds SD, Watkins S, Fuchs E, Stripp BR. Basal cells are a multipotent progenitor capable of renewing the bronchial epithelium. Am J Pathol 2004; 164: 577588.
  • 22
    Barth PJ, Muller B. Effects of nitrogen dioxide exposure on Clara cell proliferation and morphology. Pathol Res Pract 1999; 195: 487493.
  • 23
    Hong KU, Reynolds SD, Giangreco A, Hurley CM, Stripp BR. Clara cell secretory protein-expressing cells of the airway neuroepithelial body microenvironment include a label-retaining subset and are critical for epithelial renewal after progenitor cell depletion. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2001; 24: 671681.
  • 24
    Borthwick DW, Shahbazian M, Krantz QT, Dorin JR, Randell SH. Evidence for stem-cell niches in the tracheal epithelium. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2001; 24: 662670.
  • 25
    Stripp BR, Maxson K, Mera R, Singh G. Plasticity of airway cell proliferation and gene expression after acute naphthalene injury. Am J Physiol 1995; 269(Pt 1): 791799.
  • 26
    Evans MJ, Cabral LJ, Stephens RJ, Freeman G. Transformation of alveolar type 2 cells to type 1 cells following exposure to NO2. Exp Mol Pathol 1975; 22: 142150.
  • 27
    Gomperts BN, Belperio JA, Rao PN, et al. Circulating progenitor epithelial cells traffic via CXCR4/CXCL12 in response to airway injury. J Immunol 2006; 176: 19161927.
  • 28
    Riley DJ, Berg RA, Soltys RA, et al. Neutrophil response following intratracheal instillation of collagen peptides into rat lungs. Exp Lung Res 1988; 14: 549563.
  • 29
    Kopan R, Ilagan MX. The canonical Notch signaling pathway: Unfolding the activation mechanism. Cell 2009; 137: 216233.
  • 30
    Guseh JS, Bores SA, Stanger BZ, et al. Notch signaling promotes airway mucous metaplasia and inhibits alveolar development. Development 2009; 136: 17511759.
  • 31
    Tsao PN, Vasconcelos M, Izvolsky KI, Qian J, Lu J, Cardoso WV. Notch signaling controls the balance of ciliated and secretory cell fates in developing airways. Development 2009; 136: 22972307.
  • 32
    Petersen TH, Calle EA, Zhao L, et al. Tissue-engineered lungs for in vivo implantation. Science 2010; 329: 538541.
  • 33
    Ott HC, Clippinger B, Conrad C, et al. Regeneration and orthotopic transplantation of a bioartificial lung. Nat Med 2010; 16: 927933.
  • 34
    Song JJ, Kim SS, Liu Z et al. Experimental orthotopic transplantation of bioartificial lungs in rats: Early in vivo function and remodeling. Ann Thorac Surg 2011; 92: 9981006.
  • 35
    Li Q, Park PW, Wilson CL, Parks WC. Matrilysin shedding of syndecan-1 regulates chemokine mobilization and transepithelial efflux of neutrophils in acute lung injury. Cell 2002; 111: 635646.
  • 36
    Hinenoya N, Naito I, Momota R, et al. Type IV collagen alpha chains of the basement membrane in the rat bronchioalveolar transitional segment. Arch Histol Cytol 2008; 71: 185194.
  • 37
    Cortiella J, Niles J, Cantu A, et al. Influence of acellular natural lung matrix on murine embryonic stem cell differentiation and tissue formation. Tissue Eng Part A 2010; 16: 25652580.
  • 38
    Macchiarini P, Jungebluth P, Go T, et al. Clinical transplantation of a tissue-engineered airway. Lancet 2008; 372: 20232030.