• 1
    Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. OPTN / SRTR 2010 Annual Data Report. 2011.
  • 2
    Schaeffner ES, Rose C, Gill JS. Access to kidney transplantation among the elderly in the United States: A glass half full, not half empty. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 21092114.
  • 3
    Weiss ES, Merlo CA, Shah AS. Impact of advanced age in lung transplantation: An analysis of United Network for Organ Sharing data. J Am Coll Surg 2009; 208: 400409.
  • 4
    Segev DL, Muzaale AD, Caffo BS, et al. Perioperative mortality and long-term survival following live kidney donation. JAMA 2010; 303: 959966.
  • 5
    de Perrot M, Waddell TK, Shargall Y, et al. Impact of donors aged 60 years or more on outcome after lung transplantation: Results of an 11-year single-center experience. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007; 133: 525531.
  • 6
    Huang E, Poommipanit N, Sampaio MS, et al. Intermediate-term outcomes associated with kidney transplantation in recipients 80 years and older: An analysis of the OPTN/UNOS database. Transplantation 2010; 90: 974979.
  • 7
    Segev DL. Evaluating options for utility-based kidney allocation. Am J Transplant 2009; 9: 15131518.
  • 8
    Busuttil RW, Tanaka K. The utility of marginal donors in liver transplantation. Liver Transplant 2003; 9: 651663.
  • 9
    Feng S, Goodrich NP, Bragg-Gresham JL, et al. Characteristics associated with liver graft failure: The concept of a donor risk index. Am J Transplant 2006; 6: 783790.
  • 10
    Reese PP, Tehrani T, Lim MA, et al. Determinants of the decision to accept a kidney from a donor at increased risk for blood-borne viral infection. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 917923.
  • 11
    Grams ME, Womer KL, Ugarte RM, Desai NM, Montgomery RA, Segev DL. Listing for expanded criteria donor kidneys in older adults and those with predicted benefit. Am J Transplant 2010; 10: 802809.
  • 12
    Kasiske BL, Snyder JJ, Gilbertson D. Inadequate donor size in cadaver kidney transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 21522159.
  • 13
    Giral M, Foucher Y, Karam G, et al. Kidney and recipient weight incompatibility reduces long-term graft survival. J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 21: 10221029.
  • 14
    Nyengaard JR, Bendtsen TF. Glomerular number and size in relation to age, kidney weight, and body surface in normal man. Anat Rec 1992; 232: 194201.
  • 15
    Tan JC, Busque S, Workeneh B, et al. Effects of aging on glomerular function and number in living kidney donors. Kidney Int 2010; 78: 686692.
  • 16
    Tan JC, Workeneh B, Busque S, Blouch K, Derby G, Myers BD. Glomerular function, structure, and number in renal allografts from older deceased donors. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 181188.
  • 17
    Hoang K, Tan JC, Derby G, et al. Determinants of glomerular hypofiltration in aging humans. Kidney Int 2003; 64: 14171424.
  • 18
    Chang P, Gill J, Dong J, et al. Living donor age and kidney allograft half-life: Implications for living donor paired exchange programs. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2012; 7: 835841.
  • 19
    Kwon O, Nelson WJ, Sibley R, et al. Backleak, tight junctions, and cell–cell adhesion in postischemic injury to the renal allograft. J Clin Invest 1998; 101: 20542064.
  • 20
    Kwon O, Corrigan G, Myers BD, et al. Sodium reabsorption and distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase during postischemic injury to the renal allograft. Kidney Int 1999; 55: 963975.
  • 21
    Ishani A, Xue JL, Himmelfarb J, et al. Acute kidney injury increases risk of ESRD among elderly. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 223228.
  • 22
    Pagtalunan ME, Oberbauer R, Haas M, et al. Atubular glomeruli in patients with chronic allograft rejection. Transplantation 1996; 61: 11661171.
  • 23
    Schaubel DE, Guidinger MK, Biggins SW, et al. Survival benefit-based deceased-donor liver allocation. Am J Transplant 2009; 9: 970981.
  • 24
    Kasiske BL, Snyder J. Matching older kidneys with older patients does not improve allograft survival. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 10671072.
  • 25
    Rao PS, Schaubel DE, Guidinger MK, et al. A comprehensive risk quantification score for deceased donor kidneys: The kidney donor risk index. Transplantation 2009; 88: 231236.
  • 26
    Rao PS, Merion RM, Ashby VB, Port FK, Wolfe RA, Kayler LK. Renal transplantation in elderly patients older than 70 years of age: Results from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Transplantation 2007; 83: 10691074.
  • 27
    Oniscu GC, Brown H, Forsythe JL. How great is the survival advantage of transplantation over dialysis in elderly patients? Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004; 19: 945951.
  • 28
    Johnson DW, Herzig K, Purdie D, et al. A comparison of the effects of dialysis and renal transplantation on the survival of older uremic patients. Transplantation 2000; 69: 794799.
  • 29
    Schold JD, Meier-Kriesche HU. Which renal transplant candidates should accept marginal kidneys in exchange for a shorter waiting time on dialysis? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1: 532538.
  • 30
    Grams ME, Kucirka LM, Hanrahan CF, Montgomery RA, Massie AB, Segev DL. Candidacy for kidney transplantation of older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2012; 60: 17.
  • 31
    Weng FL, Reese PP, Mulgaonkar S, Patel AM. Barriers to living donor kidney transplantation among black or older transplant candidates. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 23382347.
  • 32
    Englesbe MJ, Patel SP, He K, et al. Sarcopenia and mortality after liver transplantation. J Am Coll Surg 2010; 211: 271278.
  • 33
    Carey EJ, Steidley DE, Aqel BA, et al. Six-minute walk distance predicts mortality in liver transplant candidates. Liver Transplant 2010; 16: 13731378.
  • 34
    Makary MA, Segev DL, Pronovost PJ, et al. Frailty as a predictor of surgical outcomes in older patients. J Am Coll Surg 2010; 210: 901908.
  • 35
    Garonzik-Wang JM, Govindan P, Grinnan JW, et al. Frailty and delayed graft function in kidney transplant recipients. Arch Surg 2012; 147: 190193.
  • 36
    Bohannon RW, Hull D, Palmeri D. Muscle strength impairments and gait performance deficits in kidney transplantation candidates. Am J Kidney Dis 1994; 24: 480485.
  • 37
    Hartmann EL, Kitzman D, Rocco M, et al. Physical function in older candidates for renal transplantation: An impaired population. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 4: 588594.
  • 38
    Painter P, Hanson P, Messer-Rehak D, Zimmerman SW, Glass NR. Exercise tolerance changes following renal transplantation. Am J Kidney Dis 1987; 10: 452456.
  • 39
    Painter PL, Luetkemeier MJ, Moore GE, et al. Health-related fitness and quality of life in organ transplant recipients. Transplantation 1997; 64: 17951800.
  • 40
    Kutner NG, Zhang R, Bowles T, Painter P. Pretransplant physical functioning and kidney patients’ risk for posttransplantation hospitalization/death: Evidence from a national cohort. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1: 837843.
  • 41
    Painter PL, Hector L, Ray K, et al. A randomized trial of exercise training after renal transplantation. Transplantation 2002; 74: 4248.
  • 42
    Vogels RL, Scheltens P, Schroeder-Tanka JM, Weinstein HC. Cognitive impairment in heart failure: A systematic review of the literature. Eur J Heart Fail 2007; 9: 440449.
  • 43
    Pegum N, Connor JP, Feeney GF, Young RM. Neuropsychological functioning in patients with alcohol-related liver disease before and after liver transplantation. Transplantation 2011; 92: 13711377.
  • 44
    DiMartini A, Dew MA, Crone K. Organ transplant. In: Sadock V, Sadock B, eds. Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry . Philadelphia , PA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009.
  • 45
    O’Carroll RE, Turner F, Flatley K, McGregor LM, Hayes PC. Functional outcome following liver transplantation—a pilot study. Psychol Health Med 2008; 13: 239248.
  • 46
    Wein C, Koch H, Popp B, Oehler G, Schauder P. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy impairs fitness to drive. Hepatology 2004; 39: 739745.
  • 47
    Murray AM, Tupper DE, Knopman DS, et al. Cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients is common. Neurology 2006; 67: 216223.
  • 48
    Schmidt R, Fazekas F, Offenbacher H, Dusleag J, Lechner H. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychologic evaluation of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Stroke 1991; 22: 195199.
  • 49
    Bennett SJ, Sauve MJ. Cognitive deficits in patients with heart failure: A review of the literature. J Cardiovasc Nurs 2003; 18: 219242.
  • 50
    Murray AM. Cognitive impairment in the aging dialysis and chronic kidney disease populations: An occult burden. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2008; 15: 123132.
  • 51
    Murray AM, Barzilay JI, Lovato JF, et al. Biomarkers of renal function and cognitive impairment in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2011; 34: 18271832.
  • 52
    Kurella TM. To predict dementia, should we be mindful of the kidneys? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 12321234.
  • 53
    Kurella TM, Xie D, Yaffe K, et al. Vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment in chronic kidney disease: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 248256.
  • 54
    Kurella TM, Yaffe K. Dementia and cognitive impairment in ESRD: Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Kidney Int 2011; 79: 1422.
  • 55
    Dew MA, Kormos RL, Roth LH, Murali S, DiMartini A, Griffith BP. Early post-transplant medical compliance and mental health predict physical morbidity and mortality one to three years after heart transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 1999; 18: 549562.
  • 56
    de Geest S, Borgermans L, Gemoets H, et al. Incidence, determinants, and consequences of subclinical noncompliance with immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 1995; 59: 340347.
  • 57
    Paris W, Muchmore J, Pribil A, Zuhdi N, Cooper DK. Study of the relative incidences of psychosocial factors before and after heart transplantation and the influence of posttransplantation psychosocial factors on heart transplantation outcome. J Heart Lung Transplant 1994; 13: 424430.
  • 58
    Barbour KA, Blumenthal JA, Palmer SM. Psychosocial issues in the assessment and management of patients undergoing lung transplantation. Chest 2006; 129: 13671374.
  • 59
    Olbrisch ME, Benedict SM, Ashe K, Levenson JL. Psychological assessment and care of organ transplant patients. J Consult Clin Psychol 2002; 70: 771783.
  • 60
    Dew MA, Switzer GE, DiMartini AF, Matukaitis J, Fitzgerald MG, Kormos RL. Psychosocial assessments and outcomes in organ transplantation. Prog Transplant 2000; 10: 239259.
  • 61
    Kasiske BL, Cangro CB, Hariharan S, et al. The evaluation of renal transplantation candidates: Clinical practice guidelines. Am J Transplant 2001; 1(Suppl 2): 395.
  • 62
    Dew MA, DiMartini AF, vito Dabbs AJ, et al. Onset and risk factors for anxiety and depression during the first 2 years after lung transplantation. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2012; 34: 127138.
  • 63
    DiMartini A, Sotelo J, Dew M. Organ transplantation. In: Levenson J, ed. The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychosomatic Medicine: Psychiatric Care of the Medically Ill . Washington , DC : American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., 2010
  • 64
    Paris W, White-Williams C. Social adaptation after cardiothoracic transplantation: A review of the literature. J Cardiovasc Nurs 2005; 20: S67S73.
  • 65
    van der Mei SF, Krol B, van Son WJ, de Jong PE, Groothoff JW, van den Heuvel WJ. Social participation and employment status after kidney transplantation: A systematic review. Qual Life Res 2006; 15: 979994.
  • 66
    Dew MA, DiMartini AF. Transplantation. In: Friedman H, ed. Oxford Handbook of Health Psychology . New York : Oxford University Press, 2011
  • 67
    Ortega T, Deulofeu R, Salamero P, et al. Perceived state of health is worse in kidney recipients younger than 60 years vs older than 60 years. Transplant Proc 2009; 41: 21182121.
  • 68
    Dew MA, DiMartini AF, De Vito DA, et al. Rates and risk factors for nonadherence to the medical regimen after adult solid organ transplantation. Transplantation 2007; 83: 858873.
  • 69
    Dew MA, DiMartini AF, Steel J, et al. Meta-analysis of risk for relapse to substance use after transplantation of the liver or other solid organs. Liver Transplant 2008; 14: 159172.
  • 70
    Dew MA, DiMartini AF, DeVito Dabbs AJ, et al. Onset and risk factors for anxiety and depression during the first 2 years after lung transplantation. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2012; 34: 127138.
  • 71
    Ratcliffe J, Longworth L, Young T, Bryan S, Burroughs A, Buxton M. Assessing health-related quality of life pre- and post-liver transplantation: A prospective multicenter study. Liver Transpl 2002; 8: 263270.
  • 72
    Finlayson E, Fan Z, Birkmeyer JD. Outcomes in octogenarians undergoing high-risk cancer operation: A national study. J Am Coll Surg 2007; 205: 729734.
  • 73
    Stout-Delgado HW, Du W, Shirali AC, Booth CJ, Goldstein DR. Aging promotes neutrophil-induced mortality by augmenting IL-17 production during viral infection. Cell Host Microbe 2009; 6: 446456.
  • 74
    Shaw AC, Joshi S, Greenwood H, Panda A, Lord JM. Aging of the innate immune system. Curr Opin Immunol 2010; 22: 507513.
  • 75
    Naylor K, Li G, Vallejo AN, et al. The influence of age on T cell generation and TCR diversity. J Immunol 2005; 174: 74467452.
  • 76
    Czesnikiewicz-Guzik M, Lee WW, Cui D, et al. T cell subset-specific susceptibility to aging. Clin Immunol 2008; 127: 107118.
  • 77
    Smith C, Miles JJ, Khanna R. Advances in direct T-cell alloreactivity: function, avidity, biophysics and structure. Am J Transplant 2012; 12: 1526.
  • 78
    Brunner S, Herndler-Brandstetter D, Weinberger B, Grubeck-Loebenstein B. Persistent viral infections and immune aging. Ageing Res Rev 2011; 10: 362369.
  • 79
    Nikolich-Zugich J. High specificity, not degeneracy, allows T cell alloresponses. Nat Immunol 2007; 8: 335337.
  • 80
    Youngblood B, Wherry EJ, Ahmed R. Acquired transcriptional programming in functional and exhausted virus-specific CD8 T cells. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2012; 7: 5057.
  • 81
    Lo DJ, Weaver TA, Stempora L, et al. Selective targeting of human alloresponsive CD8+ effector memory T cells based on CD2 expression. Am J Transplant 2011; 11: 2233.
  • 82
    Du W, Shen H, Galan A, Goldstein DR. An age-specific CD8+ T cell pathway that impairs the effectiveness of strategies to prolong allograft survival. J Immunol 2011; 187: 36313640.
  • 83
    Meier-Kriesche HU, Srinivas TR, Kaplan B. Interaction between acute rejection and recipient age on long-term renal allograft survival. Transplant Proc 2001; 33: 34253426.
  • 84
    Heldal K, Hartmann A, Leivestad T, et al. Clinical outcomes in elderly kidney transplant recipients are related to acute rejection episodes rather than pretransplant comorbidity. Transplantation 2009; 87: 10451051.
  • 85
    Tapiawala SN, Tinckam KJ, Cardella CJ, et al. Delayed graft function and the risk for death with a functioning graft. J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 21: 153161.
  • 86
    Pratschke J, Merk V, Reutzel-Selke A, et al. Potent early immune response after kidney transplantation in patients of the European senior transplant program. Transplantation 2009; 87: 9921000.
  • 87
    de Fijter JW, Mallat MJ, Doxiadis II, et al. Increased immunogenicity and cause of graft loss of old donor kidneys. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 15381546.
  • 88
    Danovitch GM, Gill J, Bunnapradist S. Immunosuppression of the elderly kidney transplant recipient. Transplantation 2007; 84: 285291.
  • 89
    Wang CX, Meng FH, Chen LZ, et al. Population pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid in senile Chinese kidney transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 2007; 39: 13921395.
  • 90
    Miura M, Satoh S, Kagaya H, et al. No impact of age on dose-adjusted pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid and prednisolone 1 month after renal transplantation. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2009; 65: 10471053.
  • 91
    Staatz CE, Tett SE. Pharmacokinetic considerations relating to tacrolimus dosing in the elderly. Drugs Aging 2005; 22: 541557.
  • 92
    Gill J, Sampaio M, Gill JS, et al. Induction immunosuppressive therapy in the elderly kidney transplant recipient in the United States. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 11681178.
  • 93
    Arbogast H, Huckelheim H, Schneeberger H, et al. A calcineurin antagonist-free induction/maintenance strategy for immunosuppression in elderly recipients of renal allografts from elderly cadaver donors: Long-term results from a prospective single centre trial. Clin Transplant 2005; 19: 309315.
  • 94
    Guba M, Rentsch M, Wimmer CD, et al. Calcineurin-inhibitor avoidance in elderly renal allograft recipients using ATG and basiliximab combined with mycophenolate mofetil. Transplant Int 2008; 21: 637645.
  • 95
    Meier M, Bode W, Nitschke M, et al. High rejection rates with low dose immunosuppression in old for old kidney transplantation. Transplantationsmedizin 2011; 23: 118126.
  • 96
    Woodle ES, First MR, Pirsch J, Shihab F, Gaber AO, Van VP. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial comparing early (7 day) corticosteroid cessation versus long-term, low-dose corticosteroid therapy. Ann Surg 2008; 248: 564577.
  • 97
    Berger JC, Muzaale AD, James N, et al. Living kidney donors ages 70 and older: Recipient and donor outcomes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 28872893.
  • 98
    Demers P, Moffatt S, Oyer PE, Hunt SA, Reitz BA, Robbins RC. Long-term results of heart transplantation in patients older than 60 years. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003; 126: 224231.
  • 99
    Meier-Kriesche HU, Ojo AO, Hanson JA, Kaplan B. Exponentially increased risk of infectious death in older renal transplant recipients. Kidney Int 2001; 59: 15391543.
  • 100
    Gutierrez C, Al-Faifi S, Chaparro C, et al. The effect of recipient's age on lung transplant outcome. Am J Transplant 2007; 7: 12711277.
  • 101
    Cameron JS. Renal transplantation in the elderly. Int Urol Nephrol 2000; 32: 193201.
  • 102
    High KP, D’Aquila RT, Fuldner RA, et al. Workshop on immunizations in older adults: Identifying future research agendas. J Am Geriatr Soc 2010; 58: 765776.
  • 103
    Hausdorff WP, Feikin DR, Klugman KP. Epidemiological differences among pneumococcal serotypes. Lancet Infect Dis 2005; 5: 8393.
  • 104
    Gelson W, Hoare M, Dawwas MF, Vowler S, Gibbs P, Alexander G. The pattern of late mortality in liver transplant recipients in the United Kingdom. Transplantation 2011; 91: 12401244.
  • 105
    Fabrizii V, Winkelmayer WC, Klauser R, et al. Patient and graft survival in older kidney transplant recipients: Does age matter? J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 10521060.
  • 106
    Ducloux D, Kazory A, Chalopin JM. Predicting coronary heart disease in renal transplant recipients: A prospective study. Kidney Int 2004; 66: 441447.
  • 107
    Russo V, Zavalloni A, Bacchi Reggiani ML, et al. Incremental prognostic value of coronary CT angiography in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2010; 3: 351359.
  • 108
    Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Fraumeni JF, Jr., et al. Spectrum of cancer risk among US solid organ transplant recipients. JAMA 2011; 306: 18911901.
  • 109
    Dunn GP, Bruce AT, Ikeda H, Old LJ, Schreiber RD. Cancer immunoediting: From immunosurveillance to tumor escape. Nat Immunol 2002; 3: 991998.
  • 110
    Rebollo P, Ortega F, Baltar JM, varez-Ude F, Alvarez NR, varez-Grande J. Is the loss of health-related quality of life during renal replacement therapy lower in elderly patients than in younger patients? Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16: 16751680.
  • 111
    Laupacis A, Keown P, Pus N, et al. A study of the quality of life and cost-utility of renal transplantation. Kidney Int 1996; 50: 235242.
  • 112
    Grady KL, Naftel DC, White-Williams C, et al. Predictors of quality of life at 5 to 6 years after heart transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 2005; 24: 14311439.
  • 113
    Siegal B, Halbert RJ, McGuire MJ. Life satisfaction among kidney transplant recipients: Demographic and biological factors. Prog Transplant 2002; 12: 293298.
  • 114
    Rosenberger J, van Dijk JP, Nagyova I, et al. Do dialysis- and transplantation-related medical factors affect perceived health status? Nephrol Dial Transplant 2005; 20: 21532158.
  • 115
    Kugler C, Fischer S, Gottlieb J, et al. Symptom experience after lung transplantation: Impact on quality of life and adherence. Clin Transplant 2007; 21: 590596.
  • 116
    Minnee RC, Bemelman WA, Polle SW, et al. Older living kidney donors: Surgical outcome and quality of life. Transplantation 2008; 86: 251256.
  • 117
    U.S.Renal Data System. USRDS 2009 annual data report: Atlas of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Bethesda , MD : Author; 2009.
  • 118
    Epstein AM, Ayanian JZ, Keogh JH, et al. Racial disparities in access to renal transplantation–clinically appropriate or due to underuse or overuse? N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 15371544, 2.
  • 119
    Kucirka LM, Grams ME, Lessler J, et al. Association of race and age with survival among patients undergoing dialysis. JAMA 2011; 306: 620626.
  • 120
    Grubbs V, Gregorich SE, Perez-Stable EJ, Hsu CY. Health literacy and access to kidney transplantation. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 4: 195200.
  • 121
    Sheu J, Ephraim P, Powe N, et al. African American and non-African American patients' and families' decision making about renal replacement therapies. Qual Health Res 2012; 22: 9971006.
  • 122
    Ayanian JZ, Cleary PD, Weissman JS, Epstein AM. The effect of patients’ preferences on racial differences in access to renal transplantation. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 16611669.
  • 123
    Boulware LE, Meoni LA, Fink NE, et al. Preferences, knowledge, communication and patient–physician discussion of living kidney transplantation in African American families. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 15031512.
  • 124
    U.S.Renal Data System. USRDS 2007 annual data report: Atlas of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal diseases in the United States. Bethesda , MD : Author; 2007.
  • 125
    Boulware LE, Ratner LE, Cooper LA, Sosa JA, LaVeist TA, Powe NR. Understanding disparities in donor behavior: Race and gender differences in willingness to donate blood and cadaveric organs. Med Care 2002; 40: 8595.
  • 126
    Boulware LE, Ratner LE, Sosa JA, Cooper LA, LaVeist TA, Powe NR. Determinants of willingness to donate living related and cadaveric organs: Identifying opportunities for intervention. Transplantation 2002; 73: 16831691.
  • 127
    Edwards TM, Essman C, Thornton JD. Assessing racial and ethnic differences in medical student knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding organ donation. J Natl Med Assoc 2007; 99: 131137.
  • 128
    Rodrigue JR, Cornell DL, Kaplan B, Howard RJ. A randomized trial of a home-based educational approach to increase live donor kidney transplantation: Effects in blacks and whites. Am J Kidney Dis 2008; 51: 663670.
  • 129
    Hall EC, Massie AB, James NT, et al. Effect of eliminating priority points for HLA-B matching on racial disparities in kidney transplant rates. Am J Kidney Dis 2011; 58: 813816.
  • 130
    Ashby VB, Port FK, Wolfe RA, et al. Transplanting kidneys without points for HLA-B matching: Consequences of the policy change. Am J Transplant 2011; 11: 17121718.
  • 131
    Fan P-Y, Ashby V, Fuller D, et al. Access and outcomes among minority transplant patients, 1999–2008, with a focus on determinants of kidney graft survival. Am J Transplant 2010; 10(Part 2): 10901107.
  • 132
    Showstack J, Katz PP, Lake JR, et al. Resource utilization in liver transplantation: Effects of patient characteristics and clinical practice. NIDDK Liver Transplantation Database Group. JAMA 1999; 281: 13811386.
  • 133
    Shankar N, AlBasheer M, Marotta P, Wall W, McAlister V, Chandok N. Do older patients utilize excess health care resources after liver transplantation? Ann Hepatol 2011; 10: 477481.
  • 134
    Aloia TA, Knight R, Gaber AO, Ghobrial RM, Goss JA. Analysis of liver transplant outcomes for United Network for Organ Sharing recipients 60 years old or older identifies multiple model for end-stage liver disease-independent prognostic factors. Liver Transplant 2010; 16: 950959.
  • 135
    Morrissey PE, Yango AF. Renal transplantation: Older recipients and donors. Clin Geriatr Med 2006; 22: 687707.
  • 136
    Hurria A, Togawa K, Mohile SG, et al. Predicting chemotherapy toxicity in older adults with cancer: A prospective multicenter study. J Clin Oncol 2011; 29: 34573465.
  • 137
    Repetto L, Fratino L, Audisio RA, et al. Comprehensive geriatric assessment adds information to Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status in elderly cancer patients: An Italian Group for Geriatric Oncology Study. J Clin Oncol 2002; 20: 494502.
  • 138
    Kniepeiss D, Wagner D, Pienaar S, et al. Solid organ transplantation: technical progress meets human dignity a review of the literature considering elderly patients’ health related quality of life following transplantation. Ageing Res Rev 2012; 11: 181187.
  • 139
    High KP, Akbar AN, Nikolich-Zugich J. Translational research in immune senescence: Assessing the relevance of current models. Semin Immunol 2012, in press.