De novo tumors in renal allografts are rare and their prevalence is underestimated. We therefore analyzed renal cell carcinomas arising in renal allografts through a retrospective French renal transplant cohort. We performed a retrospective, multicentric survey by sending questionnaires to all French kidney transplantation centers. All graft tumors diagnosed after transplantation were considered as de novo tumors. Thirty-two centers participated in this study. Seventy-nine tumors were identified among 41 806 recipients (Incidence 0.19%). Patients were 54 men and 25 women with a mean age of 47 years old at the time of diagnosis. Mean tumor size was 27.8 mm. Seventy-four (93.6%), 53 (67%) and 44 tumors (55.6%) were organ confined (T1–2), low grade (G1–2) and papillary carcinomas, respectively. Four patients died of renal cell carcinomas (5%). The mean time lapse between transplantation and RCC diagnosis was 131.7 months. Thirty-five patients underwent conservative surgery by partial nephrectomy (n = 35, 44.3%) or radiofrequency (n = 5; 6.3%). The estimated 5 years cancer specific survival rate was 94%. Most of these tumors were small and incidental. Most tumors were papillary carcinoma, low stage and low grade carcinomas. Conservative treatment has been preferred each time it was feasible in order to avoid a return to dialysis.