Invasive fungal diseases are a major cause of death in renal allograft recipients. We previously reported that adjunctive recombinant human interferon-γ therapy has clinical utility for invasive fungal diseases after renal transplantation. We have now developed a rapid peripheral blood-based quantitative real-time PCR assay that enables accurate profiling of cytokine imbalances. Our preliminary studies in renal transplant patients with invasive fungal diseases suggest that they fail to mount an adequate interferon-γ response to the fungal infection. In addition, they have reduced IL-10 and increased TNF-α when compared to stable renal transplant patients. These preliminary cytokine profiling-based observations provide a possible explanation for the therapeutic benefit of adjunctive human interferon-γ therapy in renal allograft recipients with invasive fungal diseases.