• End-stage renal disease;
  • liver transplantation;
  • pediatric liver transplant;
  • mortality;
  • Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients

Adult liver transplant (LT) recipients commonly develop advanced kidney disease. However, burden of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) after pediatric LT has not been well-described. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pediatric LTs in the United States from 1990 to 2010. Multivariable Cox regression models were fit to determine risk factors for ESKD and death. Eight thousand nine hundred seventy six children received LTs. During median follow-up of 7.8 years, 2005 (22%) subjects died (mortality rate 26.1 cases/1000 person-years); 167 (2%) developed ESKD (incidence rate 2.2 cases/1000 person-years). Risk factors for ESKD included older age at LT (highest risk age >15 vs. < 5 years, HR = 4.94, p < 0.001), hepatitis C (HR 2.79, p = 0.004), liver re-transplant (HR 2.67, p < 0.001), eGFR pre-LT < 60 versus ≥ 60 (HR 2.37, p < 0.001), hepatitis B (HR 2.25, p = 0.027), black race (HR 1.46, p = 0.046), and male sex (HR 1.44, p = 0.022). LT recipients with ESKD had increased risk of mortality (HR 2.37, p < 0.001). Among pediatric LT recipients, rate of ESKD was lower than among adults and far exceeded by rate of death, however follow-up time in this study may underestimate lifetime burden of ESKD. Although uncommon, ESKD was highly associated with mortality. Pediatric LT recipients should be routinely monitored for kidney disease, particularly those at highest risk of ESKD.