The impact of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) on renal allograft outcomes is debatable, with small cohort studies reporting controversial results. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate long-term clinical effects of early VUR in a large cohort of kidney transplant patients. Posttransplantation voiding cystourethrography was used to evaluate 646 consecutive kidney transplant recipients before discharge. The study endpoints included VUR grade, death-censored graft or patient survival, renal function, proteinuria and occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Of the 646 recipients, 263 (40.7%) were diagnosed with VUR. VUR grade II was most common (19.8%), followed by grades III (10.2%), I (7.9%) and IV (2.8%). VUR was less common in transplantations performed by experienced compared to inexperienced surgeons (36% vs. 48%; p = 0.004). VUR did not affect death-censored graft or patient survival and was not associated with proteinuria or occurrence of UTIs. Patients with VUR had a lower eGFR at 1 year after transplantation than did patients without VUR (60 vs. 52 mL/min/1.73 m2; p = 0.02), although this difference was not observed at 3 and 5 years after transplantation. We conclude that early VUR, a common finding among renal transplant patients, may not have a meaningful impact on long-term transplant outcomes.