• 1
    Opelz G. Effect of the maintenance immunosuppressive drug regimen on kidney transplant outcome. Transplantation 1994; 58: 443446.
  • 2
    Opelz G, Dohler B, Laux G. Long-term prospective study of steroid withdrawal in kidney and heart transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 730728.
  • 3
    Pascual J, Galeano C, Royuela A, Zamora J. A systematic review on steroid withdrawal between 3 and 6 months after kidney transplantation. Transplantation 2010; 90: 343349.
  • 4
    Woodle ES, First MR, Pirsch J, Shihab F, Gaber AO, Van Veldhuisen P. A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial comparing early (7 day) corticosteroid cessation versus long-term, low-dose corticosteroid therapy. Ann Surg 2008; 248: 564577.
  • 5
    Vincenti F, Schena FP, Paraskevas S, Hauser IA, Walker RG, Grinyo J. A randomized, multicenter study of steroid avoidance, early steroid withdrawal or standard steroid therapy in kidney transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2008; 8: 307-316.
  • 6
    Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) and Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR). OPTN / SRTR 2010 Annual Data Report. Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Healthcare Systems Bureau, Division of Transplant, 2011: p. 24.
  • 7
    Saeki T, Ueda K, Tanigawara Y, Hori R, Komano T. Human p-glycoprotein transports cyclosporine A and FK506. J Bio Chem 1993; 268: 60776080.
  • 8
    Demeule M, Jodoin J, Beaulieu E, Brossard M, Beliveau R. Dexamethasone modulation of multidrug transporters in normal tissues. FEBS Lett 1999; 442: 208214.
  • 9
    Hasselink DA, Nguyen H, Wabbijn M, et al. Tacrolimus dose requirement in renal transplant recvipients is significantly higher when used in combination with corticosteroids. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 56: 327330.
  • 10
    Van Duijnhoven EM, Boots JM, Christiaans MH, Stolk LM, Undre NA, van Hooff JP. Increase in tacrolimus trough levels after steroid withdrawal. Transpl Int, 2003; 16: 721725.
  • 11
    Smith LD, Allard JA, Corbett J, Nelson E, Shihab F. Tacrolimus nephrotoxicity as a result of steroid withdrawal in renal transplant recipients [abstract]. Am J Transplant, 2005, 5 (Suppl 11), 159.
  • 12
    Undre NA, Schafer A, and the European Tacrolimus Multicentre Renal Study Group. Factors affecting the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in the first year after renal transplant. Transplant Proc 1998; 30: 1261-1263.
  • 13
    Anglicheau D, Flamant D, Schlageter MH, et al. Pharmacokinetic interaction between corticosteroids and tacrolimus after renal transplantation. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 24092414.
  • 14
    Pelletier RP, Akin EB, Bumgardner GL, Rajab A, Elkhammas EA, Henry ML. Mycophenolate mofetil dose reduction influences clinical outcome following kidney transplantation [abstract]. Am J Transplant 2003, 3 (Suppl 5), 577.
  • 15
    Knoll GA, MacDonald I, Khan A, van Walraven C. Mycophenolate mofetil dose reduction and the risk of acute rejection after renal transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol, 2003; 14: 23812386.
  • 16
    Pascual J, Ocana J, Marcen R, et al. Mycophenolate mofetil tolerability and dose changes in tacrolimus-treated renal allograft recipients. Transplant Proc, 2006; 38: 23982399.
  • 17
    Vadivel N, Garg A, Holt DW, Chang RW, MacPhee IA. Tacrolimus dose in black renal transplant recipients. Transplantation, 2007; 83: 997-999.
  • 18
    Andrews PA, Sen M, Chang RW. Racial variation in dosage requirements of tacrolimus. Lancet, 1996; 348: 1446.
  • 19
    Neylan JF. Racial differences in renal transplantation after immunosuppression with tacrolimus versus cyclosporine. Transplantation, 1998; 65: 515523.
  • 20
    Mancinelli LM, Frassetto L, et al. The pharmacokinetics and metabolic disposition of tacrolimus: A comparison across ethnic groups. Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2001; 69:2431.
  • 21
    Macphee IA, Fredericks S, Tai T, et al. Tacrolimus pharmacogenetics: Polymorhpisms associated with expression of cytochrome p450 3A5 and P-glycoprotein correlate with dose requirement. Transplantation, 2000; 74: 14861489.
  • 22
    Staatz CE, Goodman LK, Tett SE. Effect of CYP3A and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcineurin inhibitors: Part I. Clin Pharmacokinet, 2010; 49: 141175.
  • 23
    Staatz CE, Goodman LK, Tett SE. Effect of CYP3A and ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcineurin inhibitors: Part II. Clin Pharmacokinet, 2010; 49: 207221.
  • 24
    Sifontis NM, Benedetti E, Vasquez EM. Clinical significant drug interaction between basiliximab and tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc, 2002; 34: 17301732.
  • 25
    Nankivell BJ, Borrows RJ, Fung C, O'Connell PJ, Allen R, Chapman JR. The natural history of chronic allograft nephropathy. N Engl J Med, 2003; 349: 23262333.
  • 26
    Pelletier RP, Akin B, Henry ML, et al. The impact of mycophenolate mofetil dosing patterns on clinical outcome after kidney transplantation. Clin Transplant, 2003; 17: 200205.
  • 27
    Knoll GA, MacDonald I, Khan A, Van Walraven C. Mycophenolate mofetil dose reduction and the risk of acute rejection after kidney transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol, 2003; 14: 23812386.
  • 28
    Hardinger KL, Brennan DC, Lowell J, Schnitzler MA. Long-term outcome of gastrointestinal complications in kidney transplant patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil. Transpl Int, 2004; 17: 609616.