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Keywords:

  • root end filling;
  • retrograde filling;
  • endodontic materials

Abstract When non-surgical attempts prove unsuccessful or are contraindicated, surgical endodontic therapy is needed to save the tooth. The procedure usually consists of exposure of the involved area, root end resection, root end preparation and insertion of a root end filling material. Numerous materials have been suggested as root end filling materials. This article is a review of the literature on the suitability of various root end filling materials based on their leakage assessment, marginal adaptation, cytotoxicity, and usage test in experimental animals and humans.