• avulsion;
  • dental injuries;
  • tooth replantation

Abstract Dental trauma represents one of the few situations where dentists are called upon to make unscheduled diagnostic and treatment decisions in an area that is outside their routine experience. Since patients who sustain an avulsion present infrequently, except in child-oriented or emergency-based practices, clinicians often make diagnostic and management decisions based upon their previous rare treatment experiences. Clinicians also rely on published guidelines for this aspect of their practice and expect these standards to be up-to-date and based on current research information. None of the current protocols has been tested by a prospective longitudinal outcome study in humans. Nevertheless, current guidelines have become the standard for clinical practice around the world. An effort must be made to develop treatment protocols that are based upon the biological mechanisms that underlie periodontal wound healing.