Abstract – One of the important factors accounting for successful delayed replantation of avulsed teeth is seemingly the type of root surface treatment. Removal of necrotic cemental periodontal ligament remnants may prevent the occurrence of external root resorption, which is the major cause of loss of teeth replanted in such conditions. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of two mechanical techniques for removal of root-adhered periodontal ligament. Preservation or removal of the cementum layer concomitantly with these procedures was also assessed. Forty-five roots of healthy premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were selected. After extraction, the teeth were kept dry at room temperature for 1 h and then immersed in saline for rehydration for an additional 10 min. Thereafter, the roots were assigned to three groups, as follows: group 1 (control) - the cemental periodontal ligament was preserved; group 2 - removal of the periodontal ligament by scraping root surface with a scalpel blade (SBS); group 3 - periodontal ligament remnants were removed using a Robinson bristle brush at low-speed with pumice/water slurry (RBP). The specimens were analysed histomorphometrically and examined by scanning electron microscopy. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of the results showed that the RBP technique was significantly more effective than the SBS technique for removal of the periodontal ligament remnants adhered to root surface. Both techniques preserved the cementum layer.