Abstract – The time elapsed between a trauma and tooth replantation usually ranges from 1 to 4 h. The chances of root surface damage are higher when tooth replantation is not performed immediately or if the avulsed tooth is not stored in an adequate medium. This invariably leads to necrosis of pulp tissue, periodontal ligament cells and cementum, thus increasing the possibility of root resorption, which is the main cause of loss of replanted teeth. This paper presents a comprehensive review of literature on root surface treatments performed in cases of delayed tooth replantation with necrotic cemental periodontal ligament. Journal articles retrieved from PubMed/MedLine, Bireme and Scielo databases were reviewed. It was observed that, when there are no periodontal ligament remnants and contamination is under control, replacement resorption and ankylosis are the best results and that, although these events will end up leading to tooth loss, this will happen slowly with no loss of the alveolar ridge height, which is important for future prosthesis planning.