Abstract – The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of propolis extract in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, and to radiographically analyze tooth replantation and the adjacent periodontium in dogs after storage in this extract. Human PDL cells were incubated with the experimental media propolis, milk, saliva, Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS), and Dulbecco’s modified Eagles medium (DMEM, positive controls), and distilled water (negative control). Cell viability was determined 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h later by colorimetric MTT assay. Thirty incisors from dogs were divided into two storage time blocks (1 and 3 h) and were maintained in the experimental media. HBSS served as a positive control, and dry teeth (on gauze) as a negative control. The replanted teeth were radiographed once per month for 6 months. The radiographic images were standardized by the shortening/lengthening factor, and were both qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The in vitro results showed that the efficacy of propolis in maintaining functional viability of PDL cells was similar to that of milk. Propolis and milk were significantly better than controls from the 6-h time period. The in vivo results showed that teeth maintained in propolis medium exhibited replacement resorption with significant reduction in tooth length, similar to teeth maintained in saliva and dried teeth. This resorption was less intense with the 3-h storage time than the 1-h storage time. Conditions close to normal were found in teeth maintained in milk, similar to the HBSS control. Therefore, although propolis was effective in maintaining the viability of human PDL cells, resorption of the tooth replantation in dogs occurred under these experimental conditions.