Root fractures: the influence of type of healing and location of fracture on tooth survival rates – an analysis of 492 cases

Authors

  • Jens Ove Andreasen,

    1. Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Resource Center for Rare Oral Diseases, University Hospital (Rigshospitalet), Copenhagen, Denmark
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  • Søren Steno Ahrensburg,

    1. Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Resource Center for Rare Oral Diseases, University Hospital (Rigshospitalet), Copenhagen, Denmark
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  • Georgios Tsilingaridis

    1. Department of Pedodontics, Eastman Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    2. Division of Pediatric Dentistry, Department of Dental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden
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Jens O. Andreasen, Resource Center for Rare Oral Diseases, Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, University Hospital (Rigshospitalet), Blejdamsvej 9, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark
Tel.: +(45) 35452431
Fax: +(45) 35454429
e-mail: Jens.Ove.Andreasen@rh.regionh.dk

Abstract

Abstract –  Aim: The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed. Material and methods: Long-term survival rates were calculated using data from 492 root-fractured teeth in 432 patients. The cause of tooth loss was assessed as being the result of either pulp necrosis (including endodontic failures), new traumas or excessive mobility. The statistics used were Kaplan–Meier and the log rank method. Results and Conclusions: The location of the root fracture had a strong significant effect on tooth survival (P = 0.0001). The 10-year tooth survival of apical root fractures was 89% [95% confidence interval (CI), 78–99%], of mid-root fractures 78% (CI, 64–92%), of cervical-mid-root fractures 67% (CI, 50–85%), and of cervical fractures 33% (CI, 17–49%). The fracture-healing type offered further prognostic information. No tooth loss was observed in teeth with hard tissue fracture healing regardless of the position of the fracture. For teeth with interposition of connective tissue, the location of the fracture had a significant influence on tooth loss (P = 0.0001). For teeth with connective tissue healing, the estimated 8-year survival of apical, mid-root, and cervical-mid-root fractures were all more than 80%, whereas the estimated 8-year survival of cervical fractures was 25% (CI, 7–43%). For teeth with non-healing with interposition of granulation tissue, the location of the fracture showed a significant influence on tooth loss (P = 0.0001). The cause of tooth loss was found to be very dependent upon the location of the fracture. In conclusion, the long-term tooth survival of root fractures was strongly influenced by the type of healing and the location of the fracture.

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