Aim: The present study was planned to analyze the effects of a 12-month non-surgical periodontal treatment on histologic and immunohistochemical features of cyclosporin A (CsA)-induced gingival overgrowth (GO).
Materials and methods: Gingival samples were collected from 21 liver transplant subjects exhibiting CsA-induced GO prior to, and 12 months after non-surgical periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instructions, scaling and 2-month recall appointments, and also from 18 healthy control subjects. Gingival biopsy specimens were stained with hematoxylin–eosin and monoclonal antibodies for vimentin, CD3 (T-lymphocytes), CD20 (B-lymphocytes), CD34 (endothelium) and Ki-67 (fibroblasts proliferation rate), using a streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method.
Results: Total inflammatory cells, gingival vessels and fibroblast proliferation rate demonstrated significant reduction after non-surgical periodontal treatment (P < 0.0001) in overgrown gingiva, while B- and T-lymphocytes remained nearly unchanged (P = 0.61 and 0.33, respectively). At the 12-month evaluation no significant differences were found when comparing the gingival biopsies from CsA-treated patients and those from healthy controls (P > 0.05).
Conclusions: Control of clinical inflammation by means of non-surgical periodontal treatment results both in lowering of inflammatory infiltrate and in changes in connective tissue composition. Thus, plaque-induced inflammation would seem to modulate the drug-gingival tissue interaction.
Clinical relevance: A strict plaque control program play a pivotal role in the management of transplant patients exhibiting cyclosporin A-GO.