Oral diseases associated with hepatitis C virus infection. Part 1. sialadenitis and salivary glands lymphoma


Prof M Carrozzo, Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4BW, UK. Tel: +44 191 222 6797, Fax: +44 191 222 6137, E-mail: marco.carrozzo@ncl.ac.uk


Morbidity associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is due not only to the sequelae of chronic liver disease, but also to a variety of extraheaptic manifestations (EHM). Some of the most frequently reported EHM of HCV infection involves the oral region predominantly or exclusively and they are the topics of this 2-part review. The current part 1 discusses the evidences on the association of salivary glands disorders with HCV. HCV- infected patients may frequently have histological signs of Sjögren-like sialadenitis with mild or even absent clinical symptoms. However, the pathogenetic role of HCV in Sjogren Syndrome (SS) development and the characteristics distinguishing classic SS from HCV-related sialadenitis are still an issue. It is unclear if the virus may cause a disease mimicking primary SS or if HCV is directly responsible for the development of SS in a specific subset of patients. Notably, some patients may present a triple association between HCV, SS-like sialadenitis and salivary gland lymphoma and the virus may be involved in the lymphomagenesis. The risk of having a salivary gland lymphoma is particularly high in patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia. Little attention has been paid to the effects of anti-HCV treatment on sialadenitis or lymphoma development.