Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: oral and craniofacial phenotypes

Authors


Demetrio L. Domingo, DDS, MS, Clinical Research Core, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive, Building 10 Room 1N-117 MSC 1191, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Tel: (301) 594 9726, Fax: (301) 402 9885, E-mail: ddomingo@mail.nih.gov

Abstract

Objective:  Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare early-onset accelerated senescence syndrome. In HGPS, a recently identified de novo dominant mutation of the lamin A gene (LMNA) produces abnormal lamin A, resulting in compromised nuclear membrane integrity. Clinical features include sclerotic skin, cardiovascular and bone abnormalities, and marked growth retardation. Craniofacial features include ‘bird-like’ facies, alopecia, craniofacial disproportion, and dental crowding. Our prospective study describes dental, oral soft tissue, and craniofacial bone features in HGPS.

Methods:  Fifteen patients with confirmed p.G608G LMNA mutation (1–17 years, seven males, eight females) received comprehensive oral evaluations. Anomalies of oral soft tissue, gnathic bones, and dentition were identified.

Results:  Radiographic findings included hypodontia (n = 7), dysmorphic teeth (n = 5), steep mandibular angles (n = 11), and thin basal bone (n = 11). Soft tissue findings included ogival palatal arch (n = 8), median sagittal palatal fissure (n = 7), and ankyloglossia (n = 7). Calculated dental ages (9 months to 11 years 2 months) were significantly lower than chronological ages (1 year 6 months to 17 years 8 months) (P = 0.002). Eleven children manifested a shorter mandibular body, anterior/posterior cranial base and ramus, but a larger gonial angle, compared to age/gender/race norms.

Conclusion:  Novel oral-craniofacial phenotypes and quantification of previously reported features are presented. Our findings expand the HGPS phenotype and provide additional insight into the complex pathogenesis of HGPS.

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