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Potential oral manifestations of cardiovascular drugs


Dr Khaled M. Habbab, BSc, Oral Medicine and Special Needs Dentistry, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, 256 Gray’s Inn Road, London WC1X 8LD, UK. Tel: +44 (0) 20 7915 1100, Fax: +44 (0) 20 7915 2341, E-mail:


Oral Diseases (2010) 16, 769–773

Objective:  The aim of this work was to determine the frequency and nature of oral manifestations secondary to use of cardiovascular drugs.

Methods:  Five hundred and thirty one patients attending an adult cardiology clinic in Saudi Arabia were questioned about the occurrence of oral dryness, dysgeusia, or burning sensation and were clinically evaluated for the presence of oral mucosal or gingival disease. Data were statistically analyzed with chi-squared tests, odds ratios and Student’s t-test.

Results:  Oral symptoms and/or signs were recorded in 75 (14.1%) patients with xerostomia being the most common (7.5%), followed by lichenoid (lichen planus-like) lesions (3.6%) and dysgeusia (1.9%). Xerostomia was significantly more frequent in patients with a history of diabetes mellitus and in female patients (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) between patients with or without oral manifestations when age, gender, cardiovascular risk factor, cardiac disease, type of cardiac drug used or the number of medications were assessed. There was a trend for xerostomia to be less frequent in patients receiving therapy with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and a slight trend of xerostomia to be more likely with increased number of non-cardiac and total number of agents per subject. The number of non-cardiac and total medications taken by patients with potential oral manifestations tended to be greater than that of patients without oral manifestations.

Conclusions:  The frequency of potential oral manifestations in patients receiving cardiovascular agents was 14.1%. The occurrence and character of the oral manifestations had no significant relation with individual cardiac drugs, although there was a trend for oral manifestations to be likely with increasing number of drugs.