• Cocaine;
  • disulfiram;
  • gene;
  • polymorphism;
  • serotonin;
  • treatment


Disulfiram is a cocaine pharmacotherapy that may act through increasing serotonin, benefiting patients with genetically low serotonin transporter levels (5-HTTLPR, S′ allele carriers) and low serotonin synthesis (TPH2, A allele carriers). We stabilized 71 cocaine and opioid co-dependent patients on methadone for 2 weeks and randomized them into disulfiram and placebo groups for 10 weeks. We genotyped the SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR (rs4795541, rs25531) and TPH2 1125A>T (rs4290270) variants and evaluated their role in moderating disulfiram treatment for cocaine dependence. Cocaine-positive urines dropped from 78% to 54% for the disulfiram group and from 77% to 76% for the placebo group among the 5-HTTLPR S′ allele carriers (F = 16.2; df = 1,301; P < 0.0001). TPH2 A allele carriers responded better to disulfiram than placebo (F = 16.0; df = 1,223; P < 0.0001). Patients with both an S′ allele and a TPH2 A allele reduced cocaine urines from 71% to 53% on disulfiram and had no change on placebo (F = 21.6; df = 1,185; P < 0.00001).