Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), defined as carbohydrate intolerance diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy, affects both maternal and fetal health. Possession of a specific genetic polymorphism can be a predisposing factor for susceptibility to some diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the promoter gene of interleukin-10 (IL-10) as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF α) with the development of GDM.
Two hundred and twelve consecutive series of eligible normal pregnant women (controls) and gestational diabetes mellitus women were selected based on the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria.
DNA was extracted from blood and genotyped for IL-10 at three positions and TNF α for gene polymorphism using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Plasma levels of IL-10 and TNF α at different gestational periods as well as postpartum were quantified using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
The results of the study showed that the difference in the frequency of SNP at position −597 in the promoter of the human IL-10 gene between the control and GDM groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In contrast, there was no significant difference in the frequency of SNP at the other two sites in the promoter region of the human IL-10 gene (−824 and −1082) as well as position −308 in the promoter of the human TNF-α (p > 0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of plasma levels of IL-10 as well as TNF α in different stages of pregnancy.
SNP at position −597 was significantly associated with the development of GDM and shows potential for use as a predictive marker for GDM.