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Facial templates: a new perspective in three dimensions

Authors

  • CH Kau,

    1. Chung How Kau, Alexei Zhurov, Stephen Richmond, Andrew Cronin, Cecilia Savio, Craig Mallorie, Department of Dental Health and Biological Sciences, Wales College of Medicine, Biology, Health and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
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  • A Zhurov,

    1. Chung How Kau, Alexei Zhurov, Stephen Richmond, Andrew Cronin, Cecilia Savio, Craig Mallorie, Department of Dental Health and Biological Sciences, Wales College of Medicine, Biology, Health and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
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  • S Richmond,

    1. Chung How Kau, Alexei Zhurov, Stephen Richmond, Andrew Cronin, Cecilia Savio, Craig Mallorie, Department of Dental Health and Biological Sciences, Wales College of Medicine, Biology, Health and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
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  • A Cronin,

    1. Chung How Kau, Alexei Zhurov, Stephen Richmond, Andrew Cronin, Cecilia Savio, Craig Mallorie, Department of Dental Health and Biological Sciences, Wales College of Medicine, Biology, Health and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
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  • C Savio,

    1. Chung How Kau, Alexei Zhurov, Stephen Richmond, Andrew Cronin, Cecilia Savio, Craig Mallorie, Department of Dental Health and Biological Sciences, Wales College of Medicine, Biology, Health and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
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  • C Mallorie

    1. Chung How Kau, Alexei Zhurov, Stephen Richmond, Andrew Cronin, Cecilia Savio, Craig Mallorie, Department of Dental Health and Biological Sciences, Wales College of Medicine, Biology, Health and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
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Dr Chung How Kau
Clinical Lecturer and Specialist in Orthodontics
Department of Dental Health and Biological Sciences
Wales College of Medicine, Biology, Health and Life Sciences
Cardiff University
Heath Park
Cardiff CF14 4XY
UK
Tel.: +44 29 20742447
Fax: +44 29 20746489
E-mail: kauc@cardiff.ac.uk

Structured Abstract

Authors –  Kau CH, Zhurov A, Richmond S, Cronin A, Savio C, Mallorie C

Purpose –  This paper describes the use of adult facial template in gender-specific facial analysis.

Subjects and Methods –  Eighty adults, mean age 24.5, were selected for the study. Laser-scanned images of the subjects were obtained under a reproducible and controlled environment with two Minolta Vivid 900 (Osaka, Japan) optical laser-scanning devices assembled as a stereo-pair. A set of left and right scanned images was taken for each subject and each scan took an average of 2.5 s. These scanned images were processed and merged to form a composite three-dimensional soft tissue reproduction of the subjects using commercially available reverse modelling software. The differences in facial morphology were measured using shell deviation colour maps. The facial template was used to compare differences between males vs. females groups and two subjects with facial disproportions.

Results –  The difference between the male and female facial templates was 1.28 ± 1.02 mm. The areas of greatest deviation were at the nasal, zygomatic area and lower jaw line. The results of the surface deviation maps between the templates and subjects with facial disproportion showed that the results could be applied for orthodontic diagnosis.

Conclusions –  The construction of the adult facial templates provides an interesting perspective into measuring changes in groups of patients and also acts as a useful template for the comparison of skeletal disproportion.

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