Ultrasonography, lateral cephalometry and 3D imaging of the human masseter muscle
Article first published online: 25 NOV 2010
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S
Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research
Volume 14, Issue 1, pages 33–43, February 2011
How to Cite
Naser-ud-Din, S., Thoirs, K. and Sampson, W. (2011), Ultrasonography, lateral cephalometry and 3D imaging of the human masseter muscle. Orthodontics & Craniofacial Research, 14: 33–43. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-6343.2010.01505.x
- Issue published online: 4 JAN 2011
- Article first published online: 25 NOV 2010
- Dates: Accepted 30 October 2010
- imaging, three-dimensional;
- masseter muscle;
- predictive equations;
To cite this article: Naser-ud-Din S, Thoirs K, Sampson WJ: Ultrasonography, lateral cephalometry and 3D imaging of the human masseter muscle Orthod Craniofac Res 2011;14:33–43
Authors – Naser-ud-Din S, Thoirs K, Sampson WJ
Purpose – To develop prediction equations to assist the clinician to derive cephalometric norms from the non-invasive investigations of ultrasonography (US) and 3D imaging.
Setting and Sample Population – Adult volunteers from University of Adelaide participated in the study.
Methods – Eleven volunteers (eight women, three men; age range 22–30 years) were recruited for US and standard lateral radiographs measurements along with 3D facial imaging using a structured light technique. The three examinations were performed to assess the vertical and transverse dimensions of the face along with superficial masseter muscle dimensions. In total, 31 variables were statistically analysed for relationship among the three imaging modalities.
Results – Pearson’s correlation coefficients showed highly significant correlations between lateral cephalometric (Co–Go to R3–R4) and US (volume – thickness) variables (r = 0.92, p < 0.0001; r = 0.95, p < 0.0001, respectively). Strong correlations were also observed with Co–Go and masseter muscle area derived from US r = 0.81 (p = 0.01). Similarly, strong correlations were seen between gonion–menton (Go–me) and facial width from 3D imaging (r = 0.83, p = 0.003). A high statistical significance (p > 0.0001) for curvilinear measurements compared with linear counterparts was revealed with the paired t-test. Factor analyses provided meaningful interrelationships for predictive equations generated for lateral cephalometric variables from 3D image coordinates.
Conclusions – This preliminary investigation suggests that useful clinical information for treatment planning and follow-up can be gathered without repeated exposure to ionizing radiation. For more robust predictive equations, a larger sample would be required to validate such a model.