Analysis of Linear Growth Using a Mathematical Model. II. From 3 to 21 Years of Age

Authors

  • J. KARLBERG,

    Corresponding author
    1. Departments of Anatomy and Paediatrics I, University of Gothenburg, Sweden and the Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
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  • J. G. FRYER,

    1. Departments of Anatomy and Paediatrics I, University of Gothenburg, Sweden and the Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
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  • I. ENGSTRÖM,

    1. Departments of Anatomy and Paediatrics I, University of Gothenburg, Sweden and the Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
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  • P. KARLBERG

    1. Departments of Anatomy and Paediatrics I, University of Gothenburg, Sweden and the Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
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(J. K.) Department of Anatomy, University of Gothenburg, Box 33031, S-400 33 Gothenburg, Sweden

ABSTRACT.

Karlberg, J., Fryer, J. G., Engström, I. and Karlherg, P. (Departments of Anatomy and Paediatrics I, University of Gothenburg, Sweden and the Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA). Analysis of linear growth using a mathematical model. II. From 3 to 21 years of age. Acta Paediatr Scand [Suppl] 337:12, 1987.

The‘ICP growth model’(ICP = Infancy, Childhood and Puberty components) represents linear growth from 3 years of age to maturity by a combination of a slowly decelerating childhood component together with a sigmoid puberty component, the latter acting only during adolescence. Linear growth is analysed for 157 longitudinally followed healthy infants using this model. The main aim is to assess the ability of the ICP model to describe and evaluate individual growth patterns in healthy children with particular emphasis on the considerable individual variation in the timing of puberty and the shape of the pubertal growth spurt. The use of the model to evaluate growth longitudinally over both short and long periods is also outlined.

Reference values based on the ICP approach, the ICP Standard, seem to have a number of advantages in comparison with cross-sectional standards. In the‘Prepubertal ICP Standard’, the contribution of the puberty component is omitted. The standard can be applied on an individual basis to evaluate prepubertal growth and pubertal onset, independently of the timing of puberty. By using the‘Pubertal ICP Standard’both the difference in pubertal maturation and the negative relationship between the size of the pubertal gain and the timing of puberty are taken into account. The fact that the gain in the puberty component is time-invariant, and can thus be aligned with the timing of puberty for an individual child, forms the basis of this approach. The analyses have also revealed a new predictor for final height, which is termed HAPO (height adjusted for pubertal onset). This predictor is based on age and attained size at onset of puberty-the‘onset’regression line.

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