• 1
    Hutson JM, Hasthorpe S. Testicular descent and cryptorchidism: the state of the art in 2004. J Pediatr Surg 2005; 40: 297302.
  • 2
    John Radcliffe Hospital Cryptorchidism Study Group. Cryptorchidism: a prospective study of 7500 consecutive male births, 1984–8. Arch Dis Child 1992; 67: 8929.
  • 3
    Toppari J, Kaleva M, Virtanen HE. Trends in the incidence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias, and methodological limitations of registry-based data. Hum Reprod Update 2001; 7: 2826.
  • 4
    Thorup J, Cortes D. The incidence of maldescended testes in Denmark. Pediatr Surg Int 1990; 5: 25.
  • 5
    Kollin C, Hesser U, Ritzen EM, Karpe B. Testicular growth from birth to two years of age, and the effect of orchidopexy at age nine months: a randomized, controlled study. Acta Paediatr 2006; 95: 31824.
  • 6
    Bogatcheva NV, Agoulnik AI. INSL3/LGR8 role in testicular descent and cryptorchidism. Reprod Biomed Online 2005; 10: 4954.
  • 7
    Thorup J, Cortes D, Petersen BL. The incidence of bilateral cryptorchidism is increased and the fertility potential is reduced in sons born to mothers who have smoked during pregnancy. J Urol 2006; 176: 7347.
  • 8
    Damgaard IN, Skakkebaek NE, Toppari J, Virtanen HE, Shen H, Schramm KW, et al. Persistent pesticides in human breast milk and cryptorchidism. Environ Health Perspect 2006; 114: 11338.
  • 9
    Swan SH, Main KM, Liu F, Stewart SL, Kruse RL, Calafat AM, et al. Decrease in anogenital distance among male infants with prenatal phthalate exposure. Environ Health Perspect 2005; 113: 105661.
  • 10
    Lee PA. Fertility after cryptorchidism: epidemiology and other outcome studies. Urology 2005; 66: 42731.
  • 11
    Virtanen HE, Cortes D, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Ritzen M, Nordenskjöld A, Skakkebaek NE, et al. Development and descent of the testis and cryptorchidism. Acta Paediatr in press.
  • 12
    Virtanen HE, Bjerknes R, Cortes D, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Thorsson A, Thorup J, et al. Cryptorchidism: classification, prevalence and long-term consequences. Acta Paediatr in press.
  • 13
    Ito H, Kataumi Z, Yanagi S, Kawamura K, Sumiya H, Fuse H, et al. Changes in the volume and histology of retractile testes in prepubertal boys. Int J Androl 1986; 9: 1619.
  • 14
    Docimo SG. The results of surgical therapy for cryptorchidism: a literature review and analysis. J Urol 1995; 154: 114852.
  • 15
    Taran I, Elder JS. Results of orchiopexy for the undescended testis. World J Urol 2006; 24: 2319.
  • 16
    Coughlin MT, Bellinger MF, Lee PA. Age at unilateral orchiopexy: effect on hormone levels and sperm count in adulthood. J Urol 1999; 162: 9868; discussion 989.
  • 17
    Lee PA, Coughlin MT. Leydig cell function after cryptorchidism: evidence of the beneficial result of early surgery. J Urol 2002; 167: 18247.
  • 18
    Andersson AM, Jørgensen N, Frydelund-Larsen L, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Skakkebaek NE. Impaired Leydig cell function in infertile men: a study of 357 idiopathic infertile men and 318 proven fertile controls. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 31617.
  • 19
    Pyörälä S, Huttunen NP, Uhari M. A review and meta-analysis of hormonal treatment of cryptorchidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1995; 80: 27959.
  • 20
    Henna MR, Del Nero RG, Sampaio CZ, Atallah AN, Schettini ST, Castro AA, et al. Hormonal cryptorchidism therapy: systematic review with metanalysis of randomized clinical trials. Pediatr Surg Int 2004; 20: 3579.
  • 21
    Ong C, Hasthorpe S, Hutson JM. Germ cell development in the descended and cryptorchid testis and the effects of hormonal manipulation. Pediatr Surg Int 2005; 21: 24054.
  • 22
    Hadziselimovic F, Herzog B. Treatment with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue after successful orchiopexy markedly improves the chance of fertility later in life. J Urol 1997; 158: 11935.
  • 23
    Huff DS, Snyder HM, 3rd, Rusnack SL, Zderic SA, Carr MC, Canning DA. Hormonal therapy for the subfertility of cryptorchidism. Horm Res 2001; 55: 3840.
  • 24
    Hjertkvist M, Lackgren G, Ploen L, Bergh A. Does HCG treatment induce inflammation-like changes in undescended testes in boys? J Pediatr Surg 1993; 28: 2548.
  • 25
    Dunkel L, Taskinen S, Hovatta O, Tilly JL, Wikstrom S. Germ cell apoptosis after treatment of cryptorchidism with human chorionic gonadotropin is associated with impaired reproductive function in the adult. J Clin Invest 1997; 100: 23416.
  • 26
    Cortes D, Thorup J, Visfeldt J. Hormonal treatment may harm the germ cells in 1 to 3-year-old boys with cryptorchidism. J Urol 2000; 163: 12902.
  • 27
    Wallan EM, Shortliffe LMD. Undescended testis and testicular tumors. In: M. J.Ashcraft KW, SharpRJ, SigaletDL, SnyderCL, editors. Pediatric surgery. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, London, New York : WB Saunders Company, 2000.
  • 28
    Taskinen S, Hovatta O, Wikstrom S. Early treatment of cryptorchidism, semen quality and testicular endocrinology. J Urol 1996; 156: 824.
  • 29
    Engeler DS, Hosli PO, John H, Bannwart F, Sulser T, Amin MB, et al. Early orchiopexy: prepubertal intratubular germ cell neoplasia and fertility outcome. Urology 2000; 56: 1448.
  • 30
    Kollin C, Karpe B, Granholm K, Hesser U, Ritzén EM. Surgical treatment of undescended testes. Testicular growth after randomization to orchidopexy at 9 months or 3 years of age. J Urology 2007, in press.
  • 31
    Kass E, Kogan SJ, Manley C, Wacksman JA, Klykylo WM, Meza A, et al. Timing of elective surgery on the genitalia of male children with particular reference to the risks, benefits, and psychological effects of surgery and anesthesia. American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics 1996; 97: 5904.
  • 32
    Arul GS, Spicer RD. Where should paediatric surgery be performed? Arch Dis Child 1998; 79: 6570; discussion 70–2.
  • 33
    Mayhew JF, Guiness WS. Cardiac arrest due to anesthesia in children. JAMA 1986; 256: 216.
  • 34
    Roy WL, Lerman J. Laryngospasm in paediatric anaesthesia. Can J Anaesth 1988; 35: 938.
  • 35
    Tiret L, Nivoche Y, Hatton F, Desmonts JM, Vourc'h G. Complications related to anaesthesia in infants and children. A prospective survey of 40240 anaesthetics. Br J Anaesth 1988; 61: 2639.
  • 36
    Patel RI, Hannallah RS. Anesthetic complications following pediatric ambulatory surgery: a 3-yr study. Anesthesiology 1988; 69: 100912.
  • 37
    Nilsson K, Larsson L-E. Anestesi till barn. In: HalldinM.A.B. and LindahlS.G.E., editors Anestesi. 2nd ed. Stockholm : Liber AB, 2005 (in Swedish).